Myths and Legends of China

Page: 185

Vowels and Diphthongs

a as in father.

ai as in Italian amái.

ao. Italian ao in Aosta: sometimes á-oo, the au in cauto.

e in eh, en, as in yet, lens.

ei. Nearly ey in grey, but more as in Italian lei, contei.

ê. The vowel-sound in lurk.

êi. The foregoing ê followed enclitically by y. Money without the n = mêi.

êrh. The urr in purr.

i. As a single or final syllable the vowel-sound in ease, tree; in ih, in, ing, as in chick, thing.

ia generally as in the Italian Maria.

iai. The iai in the Italian vecchiaia.

iao as in ia and ao, with the terminal peculiarity of the latter.

ie as in the Italian siesta.

io. The French io in pioche. Page 426

iu as a final, longer than the English ew. In liu, niu, almost leyew, neyew. In chiung, hsiung, iung, is eeyong (ō in roll).

o. Between vowel-sound in awe and that in roll.

ou. Really êō; ou in round.

ü. The vowel-sound in the French tu, eût.

üa. Only in üan, which in some tones is üen. The ū as above; the an as in antic.

üe. The vowel-sounds in the French tu es.

üo. A disputed sound, used, if at all, interchangeably with io in certain syllables.

u. The oo in too; in un and ung as in the Italian punto.

ua. Nearly ooa, in many instances contracting to wa.

uai as in the Italian guai.

uei. The vowel-sounds in the French jouer.

uê. Only in final uên = ú-ŭn; frequently wên or wun.

ui. The vowel-sounds in screwy; in some tones uei.

uo. The Italian uo in fuori; often wo, and at times nearly ŏō.

ŭ. Between the i in bit and the u in shut.


ch as in chair; but before ih softened to dj.

ch’. A strong breathing. Much-harm without the italicized letters = ch’a.

f as in farm.

h as ch in Scotch loch.

hs. A slight aspirate preceding and modifying the sibilant, which is, however, the stronger of the two consonants; e.g. hsing = hissing without the first i,

j. Nearly the French j in jaune; the English s in fusion.

k. c in car, k in king; but when following other sounds often softened to g in go, gate.

k’. The aspirate as in ch’. Kick-hard without the italicized letters = k’a; and kick-her == k’ê.

l as in English.

m as in English.

n as in English.

ng. The italicized letters in the French mon galant = nga; mon gaillard = ngai; son gosier = ngo.

p as in English.

p’ The Irish pronunciation of party, parliament. Slap-hard without the italicized letters = p’a.

s as in English.

sh as in English.

ss. Only in ssŭ. The object of employing ss is to fix attention on the peculiar vowel-sound ŭ (see above).

t as in English.

t’ The Irish t in torment. Hit-hard without the italicized letters = t’a.

ts as in jetsam; after another word softened to ds in gladsome.

ts’. The aspirate intervening, as in ch’, etc. Bets-hard without the italicized letters = ts’a. Page 427

tz. Employed to mark the peculiarity of the final ŭ; hardly of greater power than ts.

tz’ like ts’. This, tz, and ss used only before ŭ.

w as in English; but very faint, or even non-existent, before ü.

y as in English; but very faint before i or ü.


The correct pronunciation of the sound (yin) is not sufficient to make a Chinese spoken word intelligible. Unless the tone (shêng), or musical note, is simultaneously correctly given, either the wrong meaning or no meaning at all will be conveyed. The tone is the key in which the voice is pitched. Accent is a ‘song added to,’ and tone is emphasized accent. The number of these tones differs in the different dialects. In Pekingese there are now four. They are best indicated in transliteration by numbers added to the sound, thus:

pa (1) pa (2) pa (3) pa (4)

To say, for example, pa (3) instead of pa (1) would be as great a mistake as to say ‘grasp’ instead of ‘trumpet.’ Correctness of tone cannot be learnt except by oral instruction.


What tone is to the individual sound rhythm is to the sentence. This also, together with proper appreciation of the mutual modifications of tone and rhythm, can be correctly acquired only by oral instruction.


A Zie. In Miao legend of the creation, 408

Absolute. Of Lieh Tzŭ, 91

Accessory Institutions, 38; education, 38

Address, Forms of, 42

Administration. General, 28 sq.; in Feudal Period, 29; in Monarchical Period, 29; in Republican Period, 30

Æsthetic Products, 59

Age for Marriage, 23

Agents. The Three, 125; the Three Great Emperor Agents, 125; the Three Supreme Agents, 125

Agnosticism. Confucius and, 89

Agriculture, 49 sq.; Ministry of, 50

Agriculturists. Nung; the second class of the people, 28

Air. Sovereign of the Eastern, 137; sovereign of the Western, 137

Akkadia. Supposed origin of the Chinese in, 17

All Souls’ Day. Festival of (Mid-autumn Festival), 45

Alligator, The Spiritual, 224

Amita, Amida. O-mi-t’o Fo; Buddha, 120 Page 428

Amitabha. See Amita

An-kung. God of Sailors, 165

Ancestor-worship. The origin of Chinese religion, 52; by rulers, 94; ordinary, 100; and Buddhism, 118

Ao. A sea-monster; raises the scholar K’uei on its back, 106

Ao Ch’in. A Dragon-king; and the Eight Immortals, 214 sq.

Ao Ping. Third son of Lung Wang, 309

Aquila. Star; legend regarding Vega and, 189 sq.

Archer, The Divine, 180 sq.

Armless People. Legend of the, 388

Artisans. Kung; the third class of the people, 28

Arts, 49

Astrological Superstitions, 176

Asuras. Buddhist demons; enemies of Dêvas, 198

August. The Pure August One; Yü Huang, 130


Barge of Mercy, Taoist, 160

Beards. Little worn, 47

Beginning. Of Form, 90; of Pneuma, 90; the Great, 90; of Substance, 90

Bell, Casting of the Great. Legend of, 394 sq.

Bezoar. See Niu Huang

Bible. Parallelisms of, with Chinese religious and mythological beliefs, 79 n.

Biographies of the Gods.” Shên hsien chuan, by Ko Hung, 79

Bird. Of Dawn, 187; the one-legged, 206

Birth of the Soul, 93

Blackwater River, Demons of. In the Hsi yu chi, 352

Blank, The Great, 90

Blower. See Ch’ên Ch’i

Blue Dragon. Ch’ing Lung; spirit of the Blue Dragon Star; guardian of Taoist temple gates, 146 sq.

Blue River. Hsüan Chuang exposed in, as an infant, 337

Book of Ceremonial.” Li chi, 103

Book of History,” 84

Brothers, The Three Musical, 151

Buddha. Ju Lai, 78; and the Law and the Priesthood, 119; Tathagata, 119; Fo Pao, one of the San Pao, 119; Shâkyamuni, 119; Yüeh-shih Fo, the Master-Physician, 120; Miao Shan (Kuan Yin) becomes a, 271; his jumping competition with Sun Hou-tzŭ, 333

Buddhism. As a Chinese religion, 53; effect on mythology, 63; one of the three religions, 100; brought to China, 118; Mahayanistic form of, 118; origin in ancestor-worship, 118; and Taoism, 118; and Confucianism, 118; Buddha, the Law, and the Priesthood, 119

Buddhist-s. Account of P’an Ku, 77; guardians of temple gates, 146; evil dragons, 208; number of dragons, 209; saviour of the Buddhists in Slow-carts Country, 353 sq.

Buffalo. Of T’ung-t’ien Chiao-chu, 134

Burial, Methods of, 39 sq.

Bushel Mother. See Tou Mu

Butterfly. Chuang Tzŭ and the, 149


Canon of Changes.” See I Ching

Capture, Marriage By, 22

Carp. Ch’ên Kuang-jui and the released, 340

Cart, Land of the Flying, 391

Cask of Pearls. Wang Tan and the, 132

Cause-s. First, Yüan-shih T’ien-tsun, 127; Superior, Medium, and Inferior, 126; the Three, 125 sq.

Celestial Ministries, 164

Cemeteries, Chinese, 41

Ceremonial Institutions. Changes in marriage ceremonial, 25; exacting nature of funeral rites, 41; codes of ceremonial, 42 Page 429

Ch’an-yü. Daughter of Têng Chiu-kung; helps her father, 147; marries T’u Hsing-sun, 147

Chang Fei. Chang I Tê, the meat-seller; and Kuan Yü, 114 sq.

Chang Hsien. The patron of child-bearing women, 177 sq.; shoots the Heavenly Dog, 178; spirit of the star Chang, 179; origin of worship of, 178

Chang I Tê. See Chang Fei

Chang Kuei-fang. Defeated by No-cha, 154

Chang Kuo. One of the Eight Immortals, 303; legend of, 295

Chang Lao. The old priest who rescued the infant son of Ch’ên Kuang-jui, 338

Ch’ang Ô, or Hêng Ô. Called T’ai-yin Huang-chün and Yüeh-fu Ch’ang Ô; the younger sister of the Spirit of the Waters, 179 sq.; Shên I marries, 182; eats pill of immortality, 185; flies to the moon, 185; and the white rabbit, 185; changed to a toad, 188

Chang Shao. His fight with Nan-chi Hsien-wêng, 159; defeated by White Crane Youth, 159

Chang Tao-ling. The first Taiost pope, 138 sq.; finds ancient writings, 139; founder of modern Taoism, 139; and pills of immortality, 140; and talismans, 139; a ‘rice-thief,’ 139; his disciple, Wang Ch’ang, 216; Chao Shêng plucks the peaches for, 141; the Heavenly Teacher, 141; Vicegerent of Pearly Emperor, 141; Commander-in-Chief of the hosts of Taoism, 141; his descendants, 142; and the dragon, 217; and the Spirits of the Well, 217; and the hunter, 217

Chang T’ien-shih. Master of the Taoists; Emperor Li Shih-min and, 243 sq.; causes death of the five graduates, 244; gives magic objects to graduates, 245

Chang Ya. The God of Tzŭ T’ung 104 sq.

Change, The Great, 90

Changes, The Canon of.” See