Autolycus was the son of the god Hermes and Chione in Greek mythology. He married either Neaera or Amphithea, and had two daughters; Anticlea, who later married Laertes, and her son was the famous Odysseus; and Polymede, who later became the mother of Jason, leader of the Argonauts.
He inherited the arts of theft and trickery from his father, and he could not be caught by anyone while stealing. He also possessed a helmet that rendered him invisible to the human eye. He taught Heracles the art of wrestling, but he later caused trouble to the demigod; after Autolycus stole the cattle of Eurytus, the latter accused Heracles of the theft. The hero went mad listening to these accusations, killed Eurytus and his wife, as well as Autolycus' son, Iphitus. As a result, Heracles had to serve the gods for three years as a punishment.