Hesiod, The Homeric Hymns, and Homerica

Page: 129

Fragment #9—Homer, Odyssey iv. 247 and Scholiast: 'He disguised himself, and made himself like another person, a beggar, the like of whom was not by the ships of the Achaeans.'

The Cyclic poet uses 'beggar' as a substantive, and so means to say that when Odysseus had changed his clothes and put on rags, there was no one so good for nothing at the ships as Odysseus.

Fragment #10—3102 Plutarch, Moralia, p. 153 F: And Homer put forward the following verses as Lesches gives them: 'Muse, tell me of those things which neither happened before nor shall be hereafter.'

And Hesiod answered:

'But when horses with rattling hoofs wreck chariots, striving for victory about the tomb of Zeus.'

And it is said that, because this reply was specially admired, Hesiod won the tripod (at the funeral games of Amphidamas).

Fragment #11—Scholiast on Lycophr., 344: Sinon, as it had been arranged with him, secretly showed a signal-light to the Hellenes. Thus Lesches writes:—'It was midnight, and the clear moon was rising.'

Fragment #12—Pausanias, x. 25. 5: Meges is represented 3103 wounded in the arm just as Lescheos the son of Aeschylinus of Pyrrha describes in his "Sack of Ilium" where it is said that he was wounded in the battle which the Trojans fought in the night by Admetus, son of Augeias. Lycomedes too is in the picture with a wound in the wrist, and Lescheos says he was so wounded by Agenor...

Pausanias, x. 26. 4: Lescheos also mentions Astynous, and here he is, fallen on one knee, while Neoptolemus strikes him with his sword...

Pausanias, x. 26. 8: The same writer says that Helicaon was wounded in the night-battle, but was recognised by Odysseus and by him conducted alive out of the fight...

Pausanias, x. 27. 1: Of them 3104, Lescheos says that Eion was killed by Neoptolemus, and Admetus by Philoctetes... He also says that Priam was not killed at the heart of Zeus Herceius, but was dragged away from the altar and destroyed off hand by Neoptolemus at the doors of the house... Lescheos says that Axion was the son of Priam and was slain by Eurypylus, the son of Euaemon. Agenor—according to the same poet—was butchered by Neoptolemus.

Fragment #13—Aristophanes, Lysistrata 155 and Scholiast: 'Menelaus at least, when he caught a glimpse somehow of the breasts of Helen unclad, cast away his sword, methinks.' Lesches the Pyrrhaean also has the same account in his "Little Iliad".

Pausanias, x. 25. 8: Concerning Aethra Lesches relates that when Ilium was taken she stole out of the city and came to the Hellenic camp, where she was recognised by the sons of Theseus; and that Demophon asked her of Agamemnon. Agamemnon wished to grant him this favour, but he would not do so until Helen consented. And when he sent a herald, Helen granted his request.

Fragment #14—Scholiast on Lycophr. Alex., 1268: 'Then the bright son of bold Achilles led the wife of Hector to the hollow ships; but her son he snatched from the bosom of his rich-haired nurse and seized him by the foot and cast him from a tower. So when he had fallen bloody death and hard fate seized on Astyanax. And Neoptolemus chose out Andromache, Hector's well-girded wife, and the chiefs of all the Achaeans gave her to him to hold requiting him with a welcome prize. And he put Aeneas3105, the famous son of horse-taming Anchises, on board his sea-faring ships, a prize surpassing those of all the Danaans.'

THE SACK OF ILIUM (fragments)

Fragment #1—Proclus, Chrestomathia, ii: Next come two books of the "Sack of Ilium", by Arctinus of Miletus with the following contents. The Trojans were suspicious of the wooden horse and standing round it debated what they ought to do. Some thought they ought to hurl it down from the rocks, others to burn it up, while others said they ought to dedicate it to Athena. At last this third opinion prevailed. Then they turned to mirth and feasting believing the war was at an end. But at this very time two serpents appeared and destroyed Laocoon and one of his two sons, a portent which so alarmed the followers of Aeneas that they withdrew to Ida. Sinon then raised the fire-signal to the Achaeans, having previously got into the city by pretence. The Greeks then sailed in from Tenedos, and those in the wooden horse came out and fell upon their enemies, killing many and storming the city. Neoptolemus kills Priam who had fled to the altar of Zeus Herceius (1); Menelaus finds Helen and takes her to the ships, after killing Deiphobus; and Aias the son of Ileus, while trying to drag Cassandra away by force, tears away with her the image of Athena. At this the Greeks are so enraged that they determine to stone Aias, who only escapes from the danger threatening him by taking refuge at the altar of Athena. The Greeks, after burning the city, sacrifice Polyxena at the tomb of Achilles: Odysseus murders Astyanax; Neoptolemus takes Andromache as his prize, and the remaining spoils are divided. Demophon and Acamas find Aethra and take her with them. Lastly the Greeks sail away and Athena plans to destroy them on the high seas.

Fragment #2—Dionysus Halicarn, Rom. Antiq. i. 68: According to Arctinus, one Palladium was given to Dardanus by Zeus, and this was in Ilium until the city was taken. It was hidden in a secret place, and a copy was made resembling the original in all points and set up for all to see, in order to deceive those who might have designs against it. This copy the Achaeans took as a result of their plots.

Fragment #3—Scholiast on Euripedes, Andromache 10: The Cyclic poet who composed the "Sack" says that Astyanax was also hurled from the city wall.

Fragment #4—Scholiast on Euripedes, Troades 31: For the followers of Acamus and Demophon took no share—it is said—of the spoils, but only Aethra, for whose sake, indeed, they came to Ilium with Menestheus to lead them. Lysimachus, however, says that the author of the "Sack" writes as follows: 'The lord Agamemnon gave gifts to the Sons of Theseus and to bold Menestheus, shepherd of hosts.'

Fragment #5—Eustathius on Iliad, xiii. 515: Some say that such praise as this 3201 does not apply to physicians generally, but only to Machaon: and some say that he only practised surgery, while Podaleirius treated sicknesses. Arctinus in the "Sack of Ilium" seems to be of this opinion when he says:

(ll. 1-8) 'For their father the famous Earth-Shaker gave both of them gifts, making each more glorious than the other. To the one he gave hands more light to draw or cut out missiles from the flesh and to heal all kinds of wounds; but in the heart of the other he put full and perfect knowledge to tell hidden diseases and cure desperate sicknesses. It was he who first noticed Aias' flashing eyes and clouded mind when he was enraged.'

Fragment #6—Diomedes in Gramm., Lat. i. 477: 'Iambus stood a little while astride with foot advanced, that so his strained limbs might get power and have a show of ready strength.'

THE RETURNS (fragments)

Fragment #1—Proclus, Chrestomathia, ii: After the "Sack of Ilium" follow the "Returns" in five books by Agias of Troezen. Their contents are as follows. Athena causes a quarrel between Agamemnon and Menelaus about the voyage from Troy. Agamemnon then stays on to appease the anger of Athena. Diomedes and Nestor put out to sea and get safely home. After them Menelaus sets out and reaches Egypt with five ships, the rest having been destroyed on the high seas. Those with Calchas, Leontes, and Polypoetes go by land to Colophon and bury Teiresias who died there. When Agamemnon and his followers were sailing away, the ghost of Achilles appeared and tried to prevent them by foretelling what should befall them. The storm at the rocks called Capherides is then described, with the end of Locrian Aias. Neoptolemus, warned by Thetis, journeys overland and, coming into Thrace, meets Odysseus at Maronea, and then finishes the rest of his journey after burying Phoenix who dies on the way. He himself is recognized by Peleus on reaching the Molossi.

Then comes the murder of Agamemnon by Aegisthus and Clytaemnestra, followed by the vengeance of Orestes and Pylades. Finally, Menelaus returns home.

Fragment #2—Argument to Euripides Medea: 'Forthwith Medea made Aeson a sweet young boy and stripped his old age from him by her cunning skill, when she had made a brew of many herbs in her golden cauldrons.'

Fragment #3—Pausanias, i. 2: The story goes that Heracles was besieging Themiscyra on the Thermodon and could not take it; but Antiope, being in love with Theseus who was with Heracles on this expedition, betrayed the place. Hegias gives this account in his poem.

Fragment #4—Eustathius, 1796. 45: The Colophonian author of the "Returns" says that Telemachus afterwards married Circe, while Telegonus the son of Circe correspondingly married Penelope.

Fragment #5—Clement of Alex. Strom., vi. 2. 12. 8: 'For gifts beguile men's minds and their deeds as well.' 3301

Fragment #6—Pausanias, x. 28. 7: The poetry of Homer and the "Returns"—for here too there is an account of Hades and the terrors there—know of no spirit named Eurynomus.