Bible Myths and their Parallels in other Religions Being a Comparison of the Old and New Testament Myths and Miracles with those of the Heathen Nations of Antiquity Considering also their Origin and Meaning
[393:3] Ibid. p. 413.
[393:4] Pococke Specimen: Hist. Arab., p. 97. Quoted in Dunlap's Spirit Hist., p. 274. "Some of the families of the Israelites worshiped Saturn under the name of Kiwan, which may have given rise to the religious observance of the Seventh day." (Bible for Learners, vol. i, p. 317.)
[393:5] Kenrick's Egypt, vol. i. p. 283.
[393:6] Mover's Phönizier, vol. i. p. 313. Quoted in Dunlap's Spirit Hist., p. 36.
[393:7] Assyrian Discoveries.
[393:8] Mallet's Northern Antiquities, p. 92.
[395:1] Rev. M. J. Savage.
[395:2] Acts, xv. 20.
[396:1] Bonwick: Egyptian Belief, p. 182.
[396:2] See Eusebius' Life of Constantine, lib. iv. chs. xviii. and xxiii.
[396:3] See Taylor's Diegesis, p. 237.
[396:4] See Bell's Pantheon, vol. i. p. 187, and Gibbon's Rome, vol. iii. pp. 142, 143.
[396:5] See Taylor's Diegesis, p. 236, and Gibbon's Rome, vol. iii. pp. 142, 143.
[396:6] Higgins' Anacalypsis, vol. i. p. 137.
[396:7] Ibid. p. 307.
[397:1] Gruter's Inscriptions. Quoted in Taylor's Diegesis, p. 237.
[397:2] Boldonius' Epigraphs. Quoted in Ibid.
[397:3] See Bell's Pantheon, vol. ii. p. 237. Taylor's Diegesis, p. 48, and Middleton's Letters from Rome.
[398:1] Mosheim, Cent. ii. p. 202. Quoted in Taylor's Diegesis, p. 48.
[398:2] Draper: Religion and Science, pp. 48, 49.
[398:3] Middleton's Letters from Rome, p. 84.
[399:1] See Higgins' Anacalypsis.
[399:2] Jones on the Canon, vol. i. p. 11. Diegesis, p. 49.
[399:3] Compare "Apollo among the Muses," and "The Vine and its Branches" (that is, Christ Jesus and his Disciples), in Lundy's Monumental Christianity, pp. 141-143. As Mr. Lundy says, there is so striking a resemblance between the two, that one looks very much like a copy of the other. Apollo is also represented as the "Good Shepherd," with a lamb upon his back, just exactly as Christ Jesus is represented in Christian Art. (See Lundy's Monumental Christianity, and Jameson's Hist. of Our Lord in Art.)
[399:4] The Roman god Jonas, or Janus, with his keys, was changed into Peter, who was surnamed Bar-Jonas. Many years ago a statue of the god Janus, in bronze, being found in Rome, he was perched up in St. Peter's with his keys in his hand: the very identical god, in all his native ugliness. This statue sits as St. Peter, under the cupola of the church of St. Peter. It is looked upon with the most profound veneration: the toes are nearly kissed away by devotees.
[400:1] Frothingham: The Cradle of the Christ, p. 179.
[400:2] See Hardy's Eastern Monachism.
[400:3] The "Grand Lama" is the head of a priestly order in Thibet and Tartar. The office is not hereditary, but, like the Pope of Rome, he is elected by the priests. (Inman's Ancient Faiths, vol. ii. p. 203. See also, Bell's Pantheon, vol. ii. pp. 32-34.)
[400:4] See Higgins' Anacalypsis, vol. i. p. 233, Inman's Ancient Faiths, vol. ii. p. 203, and Isis Unveiled, vol. ii. p. 211.
[401:1] Davis: Hist. China, vol. ii. pp. 105, 106.
[401:2] Gutzlaff's Voyages, p. 309.
[402:1] See Taylor's Diegesis, p. 34.
[402:2] See Hallam's Middle Ages.
[403:1] Huc's Travels, vol. i. p. 329.
[403:2] See Hardy's Eastern Monachism, p. 163.
[403:5] "Vestal Virgins," an order of virgins consecrated to the goddess Vesta.
[403:6] Hardy: Eastern Monachism, p. 163.
[403:7] Ibid. p. 48.
[403:8] See Herodotus, b. ii. ch. 36.
[403:9] Dunlap: Son of the Man, p. x.
[403:10] Acosta, vol. ii. p. 324.
[404:1] Acosta, vol. ii. p. 330.
[404:2] Ibid. p. 336.
[404:3] Ibid. p. 338.
[404:4] Ibid. pp. 332, 333.
[404:5] Ibid. p. 337.
[405:1] Bonwick's Egyptian Belief, p. 241.
[405:2] See Lardner's Works, vol. viii. pp. 375, 376.
[405:4] Cox: Aryan Mythology, vol. ii. p. 127.
[406:1] Renouf: Hibbert Lectures, p. 191.
[406:2] Renan: Hibbert Lectures, p. 32.
[406:3] See Taylor's Diegesis, p. 232.
[406:4] "At their entrance, purifying themselves by washing their hands in holy water, they were at the same time admonished to present themselves with pure minds, without which the external cleanness of the body would by no means be accepted." (Bell's Pantheon, vol. ii. p. 282.)
[406:5] See Williams' Hinduism, p. 99.
[406:6] See Renan's Hibbert Lectures, p. 35.
[407:1] Edward Gibbon: Decline and Fall, vol. iii. p. 161.
[408:1] Draper: Science and Religion, pp. 46-49.
[409:1] See Taylor's Diegesis, p. 237.
[409:2] Quoted in Taylor's Diegesis, p. 249. See also, Eusebius: Eccl. Hist., book iv. ch. xxvi. who alludes to it.
[409:3] Baronius' Annals, An. 36.
[409:4] Quoted by Rev. R. Taylor, Diegesis p. 41.
[409:5] Strom. bk. i. ch. xix.
[410:1] "Es est nostris temporibus Christiana religio, quam cognoscere ac sequi securissima et certissima salus est: secundum hoc nomen dictum est non secundum ipsam rem cujus hoc nomen est: nam res ipsa quæ nunc Christiana religio nuncupatur erat et apud antiquos, nec defuit ab initio generis humani, quousque ipse Christus veniret in carne, unde vera religio quæ jam erat cæpit appellari Christiana. Hæc est nostris temporibus Christiana religio, non quia prioribus temporibus non fuit, sed quia posterioribus hoc nomen accepit." (Opera Augustini, vol. i. p. 12. Quoted in Taylor's Diegesis, p. 42.)
[410:2] See Eusebius: Eccl. Hist., lib. 2, ch. v.
[410:3] "Cum animadvertisset Gregorius quod ob corporeas delectationes et voluptates, simplex et imperitum vulgus in simulacrorum cultus errore permaneret—permisit eis, ut in memoriam et recordationem sanctorum martyrum sese oblectarent, et in lætitiam effunderentur, quod successu temporis aliquando futurum esset, ut sua sponte, ad honestiorem et accuratiorem vitæ rationem, transirent." (Mosheim, vol. i. cent. 2, p. 202.
[410:4] "Non imperio ad fidem adducto, sed et imperii pompa ecclesiam inficiente. Non ethnicis ad Christum conversis, sed et Christi religione ad Ethnicæ formam depravata." (Orat. Academ. De Variis Christ. Rel. fatis.)
[411:1] Gibbon's Rome, vol. iii. p. 163.
[411:2] Quoted by Draper: Science and Religion, p. 48.
[411:3] See Taylor's Diegesis, p. 329.
[411:4] Justin: Apol. 1, ch. lix.
[411:5] Octavius, ch. xi.
[411:6] See Origen: Contra Celsus.
[412:1] Apol. 1, ch. xx, xii, xxii.
[412:2] See Taylor's Diegesis, p. 323.
[412:3] See Ibid. p. 324.
[412:4] On the Flesh of Christ, ch. v.
[413:1] See Taylor's Diegesis, p. 328.
[413:2] Matt. xix. 12.
[413:3] Deut. xxiii. 1.
[413:4] See Taylor's Diegesis, p. 339.
[413:5] See Middleton's Letters from Rome, p. 236; Mosheim, vol. i. cent. 2, pt. 2, ch. 4.
[413:6] Eccl. Hist. vol. 1. p. 199.
[414:1] Prolegomena to Ancient History, pp. 416, 417.
[415:1] Tindal: Christianity as Old as the Creation.
[415:2] Manu's works were written during the sixth century B. C. (see Williams' Indian Wisdom, p. 215), and the Maha-bharata about the same time.
WHY CHRISTIANITY PROSPERED.
We now come to the question, Why did Christianity prosper, and why was Jesus of Nazareth believed to be a divine incarnation and Saviour?
There were many causes for this, but as we can devote but one chapter to the subject, we must necessarily treat it briefly.
For many centuries before the time of Christ Jesus there lived a sect of religious monks known as Essenes, or Therapeutæ;[419:1] these entirely disappeared from history shortly after the time assigned for the crucifixion of Jesus. There were thousands of them, and their monasteries were to be counted by the score. Many have asked the question, "What became of them?" We now propose to show, 1. That they were expecting the advent of an Angel-Messiah; 2. That they considered Jesus of Nazareth to be the Messiah; 3. That they came over to Christianity in a body; and, 4. That they brought the legendary histories of the former Angel-Messiahs with them.
The origin of the sect known as Essenes is enveloped in mist, and will probably never be revealed. To speak of all the different ideas entertained as to their origin would make a volume of itself, we can therefore but glance at the subject. It has been the object of Christian writers up to a comparatively recent date, to claim that almost everything originated with God's chosen people, the Jews, and that even all languages can be traced to the Hebrew. Under these circumstances, then, it is not to be wondered at that we find they have also traced the Essenes to Hebrew origin.
Theophilus Gale, who wrote a work called "The Court of the [Pg 420]Gentiles" (Oxford, 1671), to demonstrate that "the origin of all human literature, both philology and philosophy, is from the Scriptures and the Jewish church," undoubtedly hits upon the truth when he says:
"Now, the origination or rise of these Essenes (among the Jews) I conceive by the best conjectures I can make from antiquity, to be in or immediately after the Babylonian captivity, though some make them later."
Some Christian writers trace them to Moses or some of the prophets, but that they originated in India, and were a sort of Buddhist sect, we believe is their true history.
Gfrörer, who wrote concerning them in 1835, and said that "the Essenes and the Therapeutæ are the same sect, and hold the same views," was undoubtedly another writer who was touching upon historical ground.
The identity of many of the precepts and practices of Essenism and those of the New Testament is unquestionable. Essenism urged on its disciples to seek first the kingdom of God and his righteousness.[420:1] The Essenes forbade the laying up of treasures upon earth.[420:2] The Essenes demanded of those who wished to join them to sell all their possessions, and to divide it among the poor brethren.[420:3] The Essenes had all things in common, and appointed one of the brethren as steward to manage the common bag.[420:4] Essenism put all its members on the same level, forbidding the exercise of authority of one over the other, and enjoining mutual service.[420:5] Essenism commanded its disciples to call no man master upon the earth.[420:6] Essenism laid the greatest stress upon being meek and lowly in spirit.[420:7] The Essenes commended the poor in spirit, those who hunger and thirst after righteousness, the merciful, the pure in heart, and the peacemaker. They combined the healing of the body with that of the soul. They declared that the power to cast out evil spirits, to perform miraculous cures, &c., should be possessed by their disciples as signs of their belief.[420:8] The Essenes did not swear at all; their answer was yea, yea, and nay, nay.[420:9] When the Essenes started on a mission of mercy, they provided neither gold nor silver, neither two coats, neither shoes, but relied on hospitality for support.[420:10] The Essenes, though repudiating offensive war, yet took weapons with [Pg 421]them when they went on a perilous journey.[421:1] The Essenes abstained from connubial intercourse.[421:2] The Essenes did not offer animal sacrifices, but strove to present their bodies a living sacrifice, holy and acceptable unto God, which they regarded as a reasonable service.[421:3] It was the great aim of the Essenes to live such a life of purity and holiness as to be the temples of the Holy Spirit, and to be able to prophesy.[421:4]