[Theory] Majora's Mask ~ Link's Damnation? (2) Picture

Part 1

Renowned for its unsettling and melancholy atmosphere, The Legend of Zelda: Majora's Mask is set, unlike most Zelda games (which take place in the kingdom of Hyrule), in the strange world of Termina. Beginning the game from where he left off after the events of Ocarina of Time, the Hero of Time, Link, finds himself in the Lost Woods, searching for his fairy companion, Navi. Encountering his former friend, the Skull Kid (whom he befriended in Ocarina of Time), who is now possessed by Majora's Mask, Link falls down a deep, dark hole and finds himself now in the land of Termina.

Though Majora's Mask never explicitly states that the "mysterious forest" is the same as the Lost Woods of Ocarina of Time, it can be inferred easily from its appearance, as well as the presence of Skull Kid, who lived in the Lost Woods.

But where exactly is Termina? It seems odd that Link would access it from falling down a dark hole: after all, it has its own sky, complete with a different moon than Hyrule (a moon with a Moon.png">disturbing face, no less). Also, Termina appears to be populated largely with doppelgangers of persons the Hero of Time encountered in Hyrule in Ocarina of Time, though mostly with different names and personalities. Almost reminiscent of The Wizard of Oz or Alice in Wonderland...

The Happy Mask Salesman however (discussed at greater length in Part 1 of this theory), remains unchanged. His character remains seemingly intact in both Ocarina of Time and Majora's Mask, though he is much more prominent in the latter.

The "Link is dead" theory, and the similar "stages of grief" theory, are relatively well-known, but I believe it goes deeper even than that. Before we delve deeper however, I will elaborate on my own views of the aforementioned theories.

Majora's Mask begins, ultimately, with loss: the loss of Navi, Link's friend, who has disappeared. The aforementioned Moon of Termina plays a key role in the story: as Majora is causing it to plummet, leaving only three days for the Hero of Time to avert a total cataclysm. This theme of doom and tension pervades every moment of the game.

The first stage of grief is denial, a defensive mechanism against ill circumstance typified by an inability to rationally acknowledge that something has happened or is happening.
Clock Town, the first location of the game, represents denial: the first stage of grief. It's denizens are seemingly in total denial of the impending disaster, refusing to speak of it, and wishing to simply commence with the festivities of their "Festival of Time".

The second stage of grief is anger. When denial is no longer possible, it is replaced by misdirected feelings of despair and envy.
The region of Woodfall, the game's second major location, represents anger: the second stage of grief. The Deku Scrubs of Woodfall, in particular their king, are grieving the loss of their princess: and are angered unjustly at an innocent monkey, whom they believe has kidnapped her. The king of the Deku is quite insistent and enraged of the monkey's guilt, however with no evidence at all: their placement of the blame on the monkey is wholly irrational, similar to the irrational anger experienced as the second stage of grief.

The third stage of grief is bargaining, typified by desperate hopes or efforts to postpone or reverse suffering and loss.
The region of Snowhead, the game's third location, represents bargaining: the third stage of grief. The Gorons of Snowhead are grieving the loss of their leader, Darmani, who has recently died. The Hero of Time discovers Darmani's ghost, a restless and tormented spirit, who pleads with Link for his life: begging him to summon impossible magic to raise him from the dead. The dead Goron's desperate and futile hope to be restored to life is a clear instance of the irrational bargaining experienced as the third stage of grief.

The fourth stage of grief is depression. With the realization that there is no escaping fate comes the desire to disconnect and retreat inward.
The Great Bay region, the game's fourth location, represents depression: the fourth stage of grief. A Zora, Lulu, grieves the loss of her eggs, and is in a state of inconsolable melancholy. Both Lulu's depression and the general isolation of the secluded and separate island areas of the Great Bay area are plain indicators of the depression of grief.

The fifth and last stage of grief is acceptance. After passing through the other stages, all that is left is to examine one’s own self and reality and face the future.
The Ikana region, the game's fifth major location, represents acceptance: the fifth and final stage of grief. Ikana is the canyon of the walking dead, where loss and doom is laid bare. The denizens of Ikana are ghosts and Stalfos (from Hylian stal, meaning roughly "skeletal" or "undead", and fos, meaning roughly "humanoid"), living a tortured half-life in utter acceptance of their fate, true to the nature of the final stage of grief.

And it is within this fifth stage of grief, personified as Ikana Canyon, that the next line of speculation can begin. Because, after all, the one who is being subjected to the trajectory of the game is the Hero of Time: only Link actually passes through all five stages of grief over the course of the game. But then, what is his "acceptance"? What is the significance of the "acceptance" stage being personified as Ikana? What loss is Link grieving?

His own life. Link is dead.

"But surely his loss was Navi!", I hear you saying, "Because Link lost Navi at the beginning of the game, before going to Termina!"

Except Link never finds Navi. Nor does he ever seem to look for her throughout the course of Majora's Mask. Rather, the Hero of Time's grief is over death.

In Clock Town, Link determines to deny death by setting out to save Termina from certain destruction. In Woodfall, Link becomes angry at the pending execution of the innocent monkey; also, his Deku form, embodied in the Deku Mask, is representative of the soul of the deceased son of the Deku Butler. At Snowhead, Link must bargain with the residents to proceed, and he seeks to postpone or reverse the impending frozen deaths of the Gorons; also, he receives the Goron Mask, made with the Song of Healing taught to Link by the Happy Mask Salesman from the dead spirit of Darmani. At the Great Bay, Link is faced with depression, by obtaining the Zora Mask, made from the spirit of Mikau, the deceased husband of Lulu: at the same time, Clock Town has begun to suffer a gloomy rainfall, and its inhabitants are beginning to grasp the reality of the Moon, and are slipping into despair, isolation, and depression. And finally in Ikana, the Hero of Time comes face-to-face with death at every turn, meeting restless spirits and hostile undead.

Ultimately, after Link passes through Ikana Castle and defeats the king of the Stalfos, Igos du Ikana, he is taught the Elegy of Emptiness: a melody for his ocarina which creates an effigy of whatever form he takes. The Elegy can create four distinct statues: a Deku Scrub in the shape of the dead Deku Butler's Son, a Goron in the form of the fallen Darmani (complete with a gruesome scar or laceration on his torso), a Zora in the shape of Mikau, and... himself. An elegy is a song of mourning, a lament for the dead, especially performed as part of funerary services. The effigies created by the Elegy of Emptiness (notable in part because effigies of wood or wax are also common features of many funerary practices) all clearly represent persons shown to be deceased. Why then is the Hero of Time able to make an effigy of himself?

Moreover, the Link effigy summoned by the Elegy is notably distinct from the Hero of Time in appearance (unlike the very accurate, lifelike representations of the other statues): his lips seem drawn back, bearing a grotesque smile of indeterminate emotion, and empty black eyes. These slight alterations to an otherwise accurate representations of Link result in an effigy that is often thought to be extremely unnerving and frightening (this could perhaps be attributed to an "uncanny valley" effect).

That is why Link's "acceptance" stage is located in Ikana: he has encountered death in the previous stages, yes, but only in Ikana is he surrounded entirely by the undead. Why is Link's effigy baring a hideous, toothy smile? Perhaps his lips are drawn back because they are decaying? The Hero of Time is not only dead, but he is undead: over the course of Majora's Mask, we see Link in hell, in the process of becoming a Stalfos.

"Termina" is derived from the Latin terminus, meaning "the end". More literally, termina can be translated from Latin as "I end", or "I terminate". Link accesses Termina by falling down a dark hole of such depth that no bottom can be found. Given the Legend of Zelda games are known to take falling from great heights quite seriously, with damage or fatality being inflicted from sufficient altitude, surely the Hero of Time could not have survived such a fall... surely he would have perished. Also notably, the human inhabitants of Termina largely resemble persons that Link encountered in Hyrule: they seem to be doppelgangers of his friends and foes, given new names and personalities. Are they simply figments of his imagination? Or worse, phantoms of his personal hell, conjured from his own mind? Termina is described in the official Hyrule Historia, Termina is a "parallel world"... however, in many cultures (notably Japanese mythology, and many of the Western cultures upon which much of the Zelda universe is derived), the underworld or afterlife is often described as a sort of "parallel world", often located underground. Is it coincidence that Link reaches Termina by falling into a hole underground? Termina needn't be a death experienced only in his own mind: the underworld of many mythic civilizations entails a world of shades (often strange, distorted ghosts of those encountered in life), monsters, and sometimes even trials that one must face to atone for ones sins, or earthly woes. Also, the number four is highly common in Termina (four giants, four temples, four bosses; also, the devastation of the Moon colliding with Termina occurs exactly after midnight of the third day, ergo, it occurs in the first minutes of the fourth day): four being the number of death in Japanese culture, as shi (し) is the pronunciation of both 四 ("four") and 死 ("death"). The recurring number four gives a strong presence of death, symbolically, throughout Termina.

Most importantly, Link finds Termina after wandering through the Lost Woods, in search of Navi: Link was warned in Ocarina of Time that any who enter the Lost Woods without a fairy to guide them will become lost, and in time will become a Stalfos.

Did the Hero of Time become lost without Navi to guide him, fall into a dark hole, and die, entering the underworld? Does that mean that he will ultimately be resurrected as a Stalfos: an undead, skeletal monster? Is Termina a personal hell for Link, where he must encounter peculiar doppelganger shadows of those he met while alive, battle fierce monsters, and perhaps face trials which lead him through the stages of grief, to ultimately accept his own demise, and fate as a Stalfos?

In Twilight Princess, a game which, according to the Hyrule Historia's official timeline of Zelda games, occurs in the Child Timeline in the future following Majora's Mask and Ocarina of Time, the Hero of Time from the aforementioned games appears... as a Stalfos. Twilight Princess transpires many years after Ocarina of Time and Majora's Mask, and the player experiences the game through the eyes of a new hero: a new Link, a descendant of the Hero of Time the player followed through the previous two games. And yet, as confirmed by in-game insinuations and official statement by the Hyrule Historia, the Hero of Time makes an appearance in Twilight Princess: as the "Hero's Spirit", a Stalfos swordsman who teaches special skills to his descendant, the new Link. He speaks to his descendant, expressing his regrets that he was not remembered as a hero in his own time: he teaches his skills to his descendant as proof of his courage and abilities.

But how did this "Hero's Spirit" (otherwise known as the "Hero's Shade") arise? Why is it that only this incarnation of Link seems to have carried on and been able to interact with a future hero? Could it really be that the Hero of Time perished in the Lost Woods and became a Stalfos, only to return in the time of the next Link, to pass on the knowledge that he could not in his own lifetime?

Also of note is that prior to Majora's Mask, in Ocarina of Time, Link is constantly pursued and guided by Kaepora Gaebora: a huge talking owl (an incarnation of the Light Sage, Rauru), who periodically instructs or aids the Hero of Time in his quest to defeat Ganon. Rauru, however, is never seen outside of the Chamber of Sages in the Light Temple, within the Sacred Realm. It is implied that the sages of Hyrule have all been killed by Ganondorf by the time of Adult Link in Ocarina of Time, with only their spirits remaining as sages to help the hero along in his quest: Rauru's death is particularly probable when one considers that he is described as having built the Temple of Time in the Era of Chaos predating Hyrule itself. Surely such an ancient man cannot be alive in the era of the Hero of Time.

However, when one considers the fact that he largely chooses to act through the form of Kaepora Gaebora the owl, then several mythological underpinnings seem to surface. Throughout many world myths, owls have a connection to the dead. In some cultures they are seen as servants of the dead, or even as the form assumed by the spirits of the deceased. Many Native American tribes viewed owls in their folklore as protective and wise guardian spirits, and as the souls of the respected dead; the Maya viewed the owl as an intercessor between the living and the dead. Also, in ancient Greece, the owl was a symbol of the goddess of wisdom, Athene: a legend which may have led to the notion of the "wise old owl". However, on a darker note, many myths see the owl as a bleak omen: the Romans believed that the hooting of an owl signified that whoever heard it would soon perish. In many ancient cultures, ranging as far as India, Australia, China, Rome, the Americas, etc., the owl is the bird of death: a harbinger of doom whose screeches signal the imminent demise of anyone who hears it.

An owl appears in Termina who appears to be a doppelganger of Kaepora Gaebora: he seems not to know Link, though he imparts wisdom nonetheless, teaching him the Song of Soaring. In this role though, the owl seems to behave similarly to the shamanic spirit owls of certain Native American tribes, which were believed to help shamans discover hidden objects (the owl helps the Hero of Time locate the Lens of Truth), and impart knowledge from honored ancient spirits (the sage, Rauru, would easily fit this description).

Is Kaepora Gaebora an omen of death? Does the owl's frequent appearance to Link in Ocarina of Time signify his impending demise, in Majora's Mask?

And how does the Happy Mask Salesman figure into all this? Why is he such a prominent figure in Termina? As we discussed in Part 1, the Happy Mask Salesman may well represent the Devil: the sinister puppermaster who looms over Link's journey through grief, through the underworld, for uncertain purposes.

Upon the Happy Mask Salesman's back, he carries an enormous pack, believed to be a collection of all his masks. On the exterior of the pack are nine distinct masks: one of them even representing the famous Super Mario, in a cameo appearance. What is the significance of these masks? Why nine? What do they represent?

Keeping in line with the Happy Mask Salesman's devilish character, I believe that the nine masks are representative of the nine circles of hell, as described in Dante's Inferno. That being said, I also believe that Termina itself, being a sort of underworld, takes inspiration from Inferno.

In the intro to Dante's Inferno, Dante finds himself meandering and lost in a "dark forest" (selva oscura), where he cannot find a "right path" (or "straight way"; diritta via), and finds himself falling into a "deep place" (basso loco) where the "sun is silent" (i.e., absolutely dark; l sol tace). He is soon entering into the very Gate of Hell, where he finds a "vestibule" reserved for those who are neither good nor evil: similar to this is the nearby first circle of hell, called Limbo, a castle city wherein the unbaptized and the "virtuous pagans" live, surrounded by fields, where they live in essential neutrality to the greater forces of good and evil. The "vestibule" of hell and Limbo bear great resemblance to Clock Town and its inhabitants, in several respects. It is also noteworthy that the name "Limbo" is derived from the Latin limbus, meaning "edge" or "border" (as it is the "edge" of hell, before delving deeper into the circles of the damned): this is highly similar to terminus in its meaning, particularly given that terminus may also mean "border".

From here, the influences from Inferno appear to be out of order: likely so that the story can conform more closely to the stages of grief, which perhaps feature more prominently. Also, some elements of Inferno were likely omitted entirely, for their content which would be inappropriate for children.

In the second circle of hell, lust, the damned are tormented by perpetual strong winds, which toss them about forever. This is similar to the strong winds of Snowhead Temple, which prevent access to the temple at first, and which killed Darmani. More explicit references to lust or sexuality were likely omitted for their inappropriate nature.

In the third circle of hell, gluttony, the damned are tormented by a putrid rain of filth, and presided over by the monster Cerberus, an ever-hungry beast. The Moon which threatens Termina eventually speaks, and declares:
I... I shall consume. Consume... Consume everything.
A rather fitting statement, if the Moon is related to the circle of gluttony: the fact that the Moon descends over a period of three days may also have significance, wherein each days represents a head of Cerberus. Beginning on the second day of its descent, strong and foul rain begins to pour down on Clock Town, perhaps another allusion to the third circle of hell. Also, perhaps more fittingly, a strong indication of the third circle can be found in Snowhead, with the Hungry Goron. He's hungry, and seeking sustenance: if Link provides him with a rock to curb his hunger temporarily, he will reward Link with Don Gero's Mask: a mask in the shape of a frog. In Japanese culture, frogs are very closely linked to the tsuyu rainy season, being thought of in folklore as rain gods: thus this seemingly unusual connection between a starving Goron and a frog mask would be rather appropriate, if seen as representations of gluttony and rain.

In the fourth circle of hell, greed, the damned (the avaricious and the prodigal) are tormented by eternally heaving enormous, heavy sacks of money. The presence of the Bank in Clock Town could be counted as indicative of this circle, as it provided him with the Large Wallet, and allowed Link to deposit up to 5,000 Rupees: a sum of wealth entirely unprecedented in any Zelda game up to that point. The Business Scrub is also possibly notable, as he sells Link the Biggest Bomb Bag in Goron Village, for 200 Rupees.

Here it can be noted that the fourth circle is presided over by Pluto (or Plutus), the ancient Greco-Roman deity of the underworld, and of riches (otherwise known as Hades). I think anyone can see the immediate connection here to the notion of the Devil. Does the Happy Mask Salesman then have a link to Dante's conception of Pluto? Well, the Happy Mask Salesman is a merchant, after all: a sinister peddler of masks (and who certainly seemed quite fixated on material wealth in Ocarina of Time). A seeming puppeteer of Link's hell of Termina, who better to portray Pluto himself than the Happy Mask Salesman? Dante calls Pluto "the great enemy" (il gran nemico), even beyond Satan himself: this is perhaps pertinent, as I believe that Satan is represented elsewhere, by another character.

In the fifth circle of hell, anger, the damned (the "wrathful" and the "sullen") are tormented by wallowing in the mud and filth of the marsh called the River Styx, and torn apart by their fellow sinners. The swamp of Styx seems a fairly clear analogy to Woodfall, complete with its association with anger. The Deku Scrubs of Woodfall may represent the wrathful, as they are quick to anger and violence, as discussed earlier. The Great Bay may also have allusions to Styx, as its waters are hot and murky, and polluted. The Zora themselves may in fact stand in the place of the "sullen": those who repress their anger, and become morose and depressed, and are damned to be submerged forever in the waters of the River Styx (the other Zoras insisted that rather than act on their own outrage at the theft of Lulu's eggs by the Gerudo pirates, that Mikau retrieve them, and in so doing he was torn apart and mortally injured by the enraged Gerudos: who may represent the "wrathful"). Also, to access the Great Bay Temple, the final area of the region, Link must enlist the help of a great turtle, the function of which is reminiscent of Phlegyas, the boatman who ferries Dante across Styx to reach his next destination. Gyorg, the boss of the Great Bay Temple, can also be argued to embody wrathful anger.

Crossing the River Styx, but still in the fifth circle, Dante arrived at Dis, the infernal city containing hell's deepest reaches, guarded by powerful demons. It is worthy of note that Dis is also an ancient epithet of Pluto or Hades. Dis is represented quite strongly by Ikana. Ikana Canyon is accessed via the cursed Ikana River, much like Dis is accessed by crossing Styx: Ikana River directly linking the canyon to the neighboring Woodfall, in much the same way as Dis is immediately adjacent the River Styx. Also on the shores of the River Styx and just outside of Dis is a tower which correlates quite powerfully to the Stone Tower in Ikana. If one considers undead an analogue to the demons patrolling Dis, the link between Ikana's Ancient Castle and Dante's infernal city becomes quite plain.

The Stone Tower also possesses strong overtones of anti-religion, appropriate to a demonic construct. Pillars outside the tower are engraved with images of ghastly faces, depicting the Triforce (the symbol of the revered Golden Goddesses of Hyrule) on the tip of a tongue engaged in an oddly sexual manner; phallic pillars and fiery stone fingers pointing toward the heavens seem to blaspheme the Hylian deities, as if to reach out and molest the goddesses (parallels can also be drawn to the biblical Tower of Babel). The overall theme of monumental insult to divinity is extremely fitting to a potential analogue to the infernal city of Dis. All this also seems quite fitting with the sixth circle of hell, heresy, wherein the damned are entrapped in fiery tombs; as well as the seventh circle, violence: which includes murder, blasphemy (violence against divinity), and suicide. This would appear to fit nicely into Ikana's atmosphere of a hot, dark canyon featuring fire and death, inhabited my tormented walking corpses. And certainly heresy or blasphemy would be highly in line with the design of the Stone Tower, as described: even more so when considering that the punishment for blasphemy was to reside forever in a cursed fiery desert. An additional note is that the punishment of suicides is reminiscent of the Deku to an extent: to be transformed into a conscious tree or bush. Are the Deku Scrubs meant to symbolized both the wrathful and suicides?

In the eighth circle, fraud, the damned (including more than any other circle: the seducers and flatterers, corrupt priests and politicians, sorcerers and magicians, hypocrites, false counselors, falsifiers of various types, "sowers of discord", and thieves) are tormented in numerous incredibly graphic and horrific ways: virtually all of this circle was likely censored, both for the scope of its punishments and victims, and the sheer disturbing an inappropriate nature of its torments. Thievery, however, can be easily represented. The punishment for thieves in the eighth circle is a curse of transformation: to change forms over and over for eternity, so that their individuality and person is utterly destroyed. The thief Sakon makes his hideaway in Ikana Canyon, and the Gerudo pirates embody thievery (as well as wrath and violence). But what of the transformation punishment? Well... the Hero of Time assumes several forms throughout the course of Majora's Mask, as he gains new transforming masks... But is Link really a thief?

Could the legendary Hero of Time be a thief? And not only a thief, but one earning damnation? What on earth could Link have stolen to meet such a fate? And surely it must have been during his life, in Hyrule, and not in Termina: therefore, in Ocarina of Time, not in Majora's Mask. And it is there that the answer becomes plain. The Ocarina of Time, itself. At the end of Ocarina of Time, after defeating Ganon, Link and Zelda convene, and Zelda asks Link to return the Ocarina of Time to her (as it was her possession), so that she may send him back to his childhood (a disturbance of time which creates several parallel timelines). But if that's the case, that Link was supposed to have returned the ocarina to Princess Zelda... then why does he have it in Majora's Mask??

Could it really be that Link stole the Ocarina of Time from Zelda? And could that really mean that he was therefore damned to be cursed with transformation in the underworld? His transformations do invariably appear painful and torturous, and the destruction of identity intended by the curse can be seen somewhat in the fact that Link's transformations are into the forms of preexisting (though deceased) people, whom he impersonates.

Now, coming to the final circle of hell, the ninth, treachery, the damned are tormented by being frozen in ice, and left to wallow in frigid darkness forever. Ice must of course bring us back to the Snowhead Temple, where our speculative journey into hell began: with the strong winds of the second circle. The winds, Link finds, are produced from the breath of Biggoron, a gigantic Goron who inadvertently killed Darmani with his fierce breath. In addition to Biggoron, Termina is presided over by four giants which guard the four cardinal directions, and serve as sort of deities to the Terminians. They would appear to correspond accurately (when including the giant Biggoron) to the five giants which guard the ninth circle of hell: Nimrod, Typhon, Briareus, Ephialtes, and Tityos.

Snowhead Temple itself would appear to represent Cocytus, the frozen lake of the abyss which is the deepest depth of hell, wherein Lucifer himself is imprisoned. The Snowhead Temple is an icy, cursed construct, however fiery and molten in its interior depths, perhaps mirroring the fiery nature of Satan. Additionally, the Hero of Time encounters Goht as the boss of the dungeon: a huge mechanical goat, with the face of a man, and enormous curved horns. I believe that Goht represents the fallen Lucifer himself, in the form of Baphomet (perhaps also conflated accidentally with the demon Behemoth, whose Hebrew name transliterated to Japanese, bahumoto [バフモト], is incredibly similar to the transliterated name of Baphomet, bahumeto [バフメト]): a goat devil imprisoned in a tomb of ice, and consumed in fire. Perhaps somewhat unsettlingly, like Dante's Satan, who is powerless and trapped in eternal despair, frozen in a lake of ice, Goht is first found encased in a block of ice: but is unfortunately thawed and released by none other than the Hero of Time. Link inadvertently unshackled Satan, releasing him from his icy prison.

From here, all that remains is to journey out of hell. Dante describes passing through the center of the earth, and gravity reversing, so that up was down and vice versa. Again we return to the Stone Tower, but this time to the Stone Tower Temple that we skipped in earlier circles: the final temple the Hero of Time faces in Termina. Here, not only is Link confronted with the theme of "acceptance" of death and his resurrection as an undead Stalfos, but the temple's focus is, of course, the reversal of gravity. Whereas in Dante's Divine Comedy, Dante passes through hell and emerges in purgatory on the other side, including a separate world of purgatory would surely have been overly complicated and make the game far too long. Incidentally, it can be argued that elements of hell and purgatory were combined, much as in Far Eastern conceptions of the underworld: wherein both punishment and absolution are carried out: Link may well be damned, but through the effort of passing through hell, the five stages of grief, and coming to terms with his fate, perhaps he managed to conquer his own damnation.

He appears to have become a Stalfos nonetheless, but certainly a Stalfos which has retained its virtue, and went on to pass on its skills to the hero of Twilight Princess.

But there remain unanswered questions... what is the Happy Mask Salesman's true purpose? What is his motive, and where did he go after he vanished, following the defeat of Majora? If he really is meant to be the Devil, to signify Pluto/Hades himself, then what is his ultimate goal in manipulating the Hero of Time? What role does he serve in Termina? The answer may lie with the Fierce Deity Mask... which will be discussed further in Part 3 of this theory.

Dante Alighieri's Divine Comedy
Continue Reading: Places