Mitra-Varuna Picture

Two ancient Indo-European and Vedic gods. Vedic Mitra identical to the Iranian Mithra and Roman Mithras. Varuna is identical to the Iranian Ahura Mazda and the Roman Jupiter.

From Wikipedia:
Vedic Mitra is the patron divinity of contracts and meetings. He is a prominent deity of the Rigveda distinguished by a relationship to Varuna, the protector of ṛtá. Together with Varuna, he counted among the chief Adityas, a group of deities with social functions. They are the supreme keepers of order and gods of the law.
Varuna and Mitra are the gods of the blood oath and tribal contracts, often twinned as Mitra–Varuna (a dvandva compound). In the Vedic hymns, Mitra is often invoked together with Varuna, as Mitra-Varuna. In some of their aspects, Varuna is lord of the cosmic rhythm of the celestial spheres, while Mitra brings forth the light at dawn, which was covered by Varuna. Mitra together with Varuna is the most prominent deity and the chief of the Adityas in the Rigveda.

In the late Vedic Shatapatha Brahmana, Mitra-varuna is analyzed as "the Counsel and the Power" — Mitra being the priesthood (Purohita), Varuna the royal power (Rājān).

In Vedic literature, Mitra and Varuna are portrayed as icons of affection and intimate friendship between males (the Sanskrit word mitra means “friend” or “companion”). Ancient Brahmana texts furthermore associate Mitra and Varuna with the two lunar phases and same-sex relations: “Mitra and Varuna, on the other hand, are the two half-moons: the waxing one is Varuna and the waning one is Mitra. During the new-moon night these two meet and when they are thus together they are pleased with a cake offering. Verily, all are pleased and all is obtained by any person knowing this. On that same night, Mitra implants his seed in Varuna and when the moon later wanes, that waning is produced from his seed.” (Shatapatha Brahmana 2.4.4.19) Varuna is similarly said to implant his seed in Mitra on the full-moon night for the purpose of securing its future waxing.

Art by Deva.
Continue Reading: Jupiter