The Religion of the Ancient Celts

Page: 57

Footnote 338:(return)

Loth, i. 97 f.; Lady Guest, iii. 143 f.

Footnote 339:(return)

See Nutt, Folk-lore Record, v. 1 f.

Footnote 340:(return)

Loth, i. 298, ii. 243-244; Geoffrey, Hist. Brit. ii. 11.

Footnote 341:(return)

Loth, i. 224, 265, ii. 215, 244; Geoff. ii. 11.

Footnote 342:(return)

Skene, i. 81; Rh[^y]s, Academy, Jan. 7, 1882.

Footnote 343:(return)

Triads, Loth, ii. 293; Nutt, Folk-lore Record, v. 9.

Footnote 344:(return)

Hist. Brit. ii. 11-14.

Footnote 345:(return)

AL 131.

Footnote 346:(return)

Skene, i. 262.

Footnote 347:(return)

See Nutt-Meyer, ii. 17.

Footnote 348:(return)

Skene, i. 276.

Footnote 349:(return)

Loth, i. 208, 280; see also i. 197, ii. 245, 294.

Footnote 350:(return)

See Skene i. 355. The raven is rather the bird of prey come to devour Urien than his "attribute."

Footnote 351:(return)

Skene, i. 298.

Footnote 352:(return)

For these theories see Rh[^y]s, HL 90f.; AL ch. 11; CFL 552.

Footnote 353:(return)

See Ch. XXIV.

Footnote 354:(return)

See p. 242.

Footnote 355:(return)

Loth, i. 65, ii. 285.

Footnote 356:(return)

Hist. Brit. iii. 1f. Geoffrey says that Billingsgate was called after Belinus, and that his ashes were preserved in the gate, a tradition recalling some connection of the god with the gate.

Footnote 357:(return)

An early Caradawc saga may have become mingled with the story of Caractacus.

Footnote 358:(return)

Rees, 77.

Footnote 359:(return)

So Elton, 291.

Footnote 360:(return)

Folk-lore Record, v. 29.

Footnote 361:(return)

Lady Guest, iii. 134.

Footnote 362:(return)

Dôn is sometimes held to be male, but she is distinctly called sister of Math (Loth, i. 134), and as the equivalent of Danu she must be female.

Footnote 363:(return)

Loth, ii. 209.

Footnote 364:(return)

See p. 60, supra, and Rh[^y]s, HL 90f.

Footnote 365:(return)

Lady Guest, iii. 255; Skene, i. 297, 350.

Footnote 366:(return)

For this Mabinogi see Loth, i. 117f.; Guest, iii. 189f.

Footnote 367:(return)

Skene, i. 286.

Footnote 368:(return)

Loth, ii. 229, 257; and for other references to Math, Skene, i. 281, 269, 299.

Footnote 369:(return)

Skene, i. 296, 281.

Footnote 370:(return)

Loth, ii. 297; Rh[^y]s, HL 276.

Footnote 371:(return)

Skene, i. 264.

Footnote 372:(return)

Rh[^y]s, HL 270. Skene, i. 430, 537, gives a different meaning to seon.

Footnote 373:(return)

Skene, i. 264.

Footnote 374:(return)

Loth, ii. 296.

Footnote 375:(return)

Skene, i. 299, 531.

Footnote 376:(return)

See p. 224, infra.

Footnote 377:(return)

Guest, iii. 255; Morris, Celtic Remains, 231.

Footnote 378:(return)

HL 283 f. See also Grimm, Teut. Myth. i. 131.

Footnote 379:(return)

Loth, i. 240.

Footnote 380:(return)

Stokes, US 34.

Footnote 381:(return)

Myvyrian Archæol. i. 168; Skene, i. 275, 278 f.; Loth, ii. 259.

Footnote 382:(return)

See my Childhood of Fiction, 127. Llew's vulnerability does not depend on the discovery of his separable soul, as is usual. The earliest form of this Märchen is the Egyptian story of the Two Brothers, and that of Samson and Delilah is another old form of it.

Footnote 383:(return)

Skene, i. 314, ii. 342.

Footnote 384:(return)

HL 408; RC x. 490.

Footnote 385:(return)

HL 237, 319, 398, 408.

Footnote 386:(return)

HL 384.

Footnote 387:(return)

HL 474, 424.

Footnote 388:(return)

Loth, ii. 231.

Footnote 389:(return)

Loth, i. 240.

Footnote 390:(return)

Skene, i, 286-287.

Footnote 391:(return)

Loth, ii. 263.

Footnote 392:(return)

Skene, ii. 159; Rh[^y]s, HL 157; Guest, iii. 255.

Footnote 393:(return)

Rh[^y]s, HL 161, 566.

Footnote 394:(return)

Skene, i. 282, 288, 310, 543, ii. 145; Loth, i. 135; Rh[^y]s, HL 387.

Footnote 395:(return)

Loth, i. 27 f.; Guest, iii. 7 f.

Footnote 396:(return)

Rhiannon is daughter of Heveidd Hen or "the Ancient," probably an old divinity.

Footnote 397:(return)

In the Mabinogi and in Fionn tales a mysterious hand snatches away newly-born children. Cf. ZCP i. 153.

Footnote 398:(return)

Anwyl, ZCP i. 288.

Footnote 399:(return)

Loth, ii. 247.

Footnote 400:(return)

Skene, i. 264.

Footnote 401:(return)

Ibid. i. 276.

Footnote 402:(return)

Ibid. i. 310.

Footnote 403:(return)

Loth, i. 166.

Footnote 404:(return)

Hist. Brit. ii. 11, iii. 1, 20, iv. 3.

Footnote 405:(return)

Cf. Anwyl, ZCP i. 287.

Footnote 406:(return)

Skene, i. 431; Loth, ii. 278. Some phrases seem to connect Beli with the sea—the waves are his cattle, the brine his liquor.

Footnote 407:(return)

Loth, ii. 209, 249, 260, 283.

Footnote 408:(return)

Geoffrey, Brit. Hist. iv. 3. 4.

Footnote 409:(return)

Rh[^y]s, HL 125 f.; Loth, i. 265; MacBain, CM ix. 66.

Footnote 410:(return)

See Loth, i. 269; and Skene, i. 293.

Footnote 411:(return)

Loth, i. 173 f.

Footnote 412:(return)

Loth, ii. 256, 274.

Footnote 413:(return)

Rh[^y]s, HL 606. Cf. the Breton fairies, the Korr and Korrigan.

Footnote 414:(return)

Geoffrey, iii. 20.

Footnote 415:(return)

Loth, i. 253-254; Skene, i. 293.

Footnote 416:(return)

Guest, iii. 323.

Footnote 417:(return)

Ibid. 325.

Footnote 418:(return)

Loth, i. 253, ii. 297.

Footnote 419:(return)

See p. 353, infra.; Skene, i. 532.

Footnote 420:(return)

Anwyl, ZCP i. 293.

Footnote 421:(return)

Guest, iii. 356 f.

Footnote 422:(return)

Skene, i. 275, 296.

Footnote 423:(return)

Ibid. i. 498, 500.

Footnote 424:(return)

See p. 382, infra.

Footnote 425:(return)

Mon. Hist. Brit. i. 698, ii.; Thomas, Revue de l'hist. des Religions, xxxviii. 339.

Footnote 426:(return)

Skene, i. 263, 274-276, 278, 281-282, 286-287. His "chair" bestows immortal youth and freedom from sickness.

Footnote 427:(return)

Skene, i. 264, 376 f., 309, 532. See p. 356, infra.

Footnote 428:(return)

See pp. 350-1, infra. Fionn and Taliesin are examples of the Märchen formula of a hero expelled and brought back to honour, Nutt-Meyer, ii. 88.

Footnote 429:(return)

Loth, i. 209, ii. 238; Skene, ii. 459.

Footnote 430:(return)

Nennius, ch. 50, 79.

Footnote 431:(return)

Anwyl, ZCP i. 293.

Footnote 432:(return)

Geoffrey, viii. 9-xi. 3.

Footnote 433:(return)

Nutt-Meyer, ii. 22 f.

Footnote 434:(return)

See p. 381, infra.

Footnote 435:(return)

Loth, ii. 232, 245.

Footnote 436:(return)

Rh[^y]s, AL, 39 f. Others derive the name from arto-s, "bear." MacBain, 357.

Footnote 437:(return)

Loth. ii. 247; Skene, ii. 459.

Footnote 438:(return)

Geoffrey, vi. 17-19, vii. viii. 1, 10-12, 19. In a poem (Skene, i. 478), Myrddin is called "the man who speaks from the grave"—a conception familiar to the Celts, who thought of the dead as living on in the grave. See p. 340, infra.

Footnote 439:(return)

Rh[^y]s, HL, 154 f., 158-159, 194.

Footnote 440:(return)

Geoffrey, ix. 12, etc.

Footnote 441:(return)

Skene, ii. 51.

Footnote 442:(return)

Loth. i. 225; cf. p. 131, infra. From this description Elton supposes Kei to have been a god of fire.

Footnote 443:(return)

Myv. Arch. i. 175; Loth, i. 269. Rh[^y]s, AL 59, thinks Merlin may have been Guinevere's ravisher.

Footnote 444:(return)

Holder, i. 414.

Footnote 445:(return)

Loth i. 250, 260 f., 280, ii. 215, 244.

Footnote 446:(return)

Skene, i. 363, ii. 406; Myv. Arch. i. 78.

Footnote 447:(return)

Hu Gadarn is mentioned in the Triads as a leader of the Cymry from the east and their teacher in ploughing. He divided them into clans, and invented music and song. The monster avanc was drawn by him from the lake which had burst and caused the flood (see p. 231, infra). Perhaps Hu is an old culture-god of some tribes, but the Triads referring to him are of late date (Loth, ii. 271, 289, 290-291, 298-299). For the ridiculous Neo-Druidic speculations based on Hu, see Davies, Celtic Researches and Mythology and Rites of the Druids.

Gurgiunt, son of Belinus, in Geoffrey, iii. 11, may be the French legendary Gargantua, perhaps an old god. See the works of Sébillot and Gaidoz on Gargantua.

Footnote 448:(return)

Loth, i. 270.

Footnote 449:(return)

Dio Cassius, lxii. 6.

Footnote 450:(return)

Solinus, xxii. 10. See p. 2, supra.

Footnote 451:(return)

Ptol. ii. 3. 2.

Footnote 452:(return)

For all these see Holder, s.v.




The events of the Cúchulainn cycle are supposed to date from the beginning of the Christian era—King Conchobar's death synchronising with the crucifixion. But though some personages who are mentioned in the Annals figure in the tales, on the whole they deal with persons who never existed. They belong to a world of romance and myth, and embody the ideals of Celtic paganism, modified by Christian influences and those of classical tales and romantic sagas of other regions, mainly Scandinavian. The present form of the tales as they exist in the Book of the Dun Cow and the Book of Leinster must have been given them in the seventh or eighth century, but they embody materials of a far older date. At an early time the saga may have had a more or less definite form, but new tales were being constantly added to it, and some of the longer tales are composed of incidents which once had no connection with each other.

Cúchulainn is the central figure of the cycle, and its central episode is that of the Táin bó Cuailgne, or "Cattle Spoil of Cooley." Other personages are Conchobar and Dechtire, Ailill and Medb, Fergus, Conall Cernach, Cúroi, Deirdre, and the sons of Usnach. Some of these are of divine descent, some are perhaps euhemerised divinities; Conchobar is called día talmaide, "a terrestrial god," and Dechtire a goddess. The cycle opens with the birth of {128} Conchobar, son of Cathbad and of Nessa, daughter of one of the Tuatha Dé Danann, though in an older rescension of the tale he is Nessa's son by the god Lug. During Conchobar's reign over Ulster Cúchulainn was born. He was son of Dechtire, either by Sualtaim, or by her brother Conchobar, or by the god Lug, of whom he may also be a reincarnation.