The Religion of the Ancient Celts

Page: 31

Märchen, see Book of the Dean of Lismore, 10; Campbell, WHT ii. 77. The sea-god Lir is probably the Liur of Ossianic ballads (Campbell, LF 100, 125), and his son Manannan is perhaps "the Son of the Sea" in a Gaelic song (Carmichael, CG ii. 122). Manannan and his daughters are also known (Campbell, witchcraft, 83).

Footnote 154:(return)

The euhemerising process is first seen in tenth century poems by Eochaid hua Flainn, but was largely the work of Flainn Manistrech, ob. 1056. It is found fully fledged in the Book of Invasions.

Footnote 155:(return)

Keating, 105-106.

Footnote 156:(return)

Keating, 107; LL 4b. Cf. RC xvi. 155.

Footnote 157:(return)

LL 5.

Footnote 158:(return)

Keating, 111. Giraldus Cambrensis, Hist. Irel. c. 2, makes Roanus survive and tell the tale of Partholan to S. Patrick. He is the Caoilte mac Ronan of other tales, a survivor of the Fians, who held many racy dialogues with the Saint. Keating abuses Giraldus for equating Roanus with Finntain in his "lying history," and for calling him Roanus instead of Ronanus, a mistake in which he, "the guide bull of the herd," is followed by others.

Footnote 159:(return)

Keating, 164.

Footnote 160:(return)

LL 5a.

Footnote 161:(return)

Keating, 121; LL 6a; RC xvi. 161.

Footnote 162:(return)

Nennius, Hist. Brit. 13.

Footnote 163:(return)

LL 6, 8b.

Footnote 164:(return)

LL 6b, 127a; IT iii. 381; RC xvi. 81.

Footnote 165:(return)

LL 9b, 11a.

Footnote 166:(return)

See Cormac, s.v. "Nescoit," LU 51.

Footnote 167:(return)

Harl. MSS. 2, 17, pp. 90-99. Cf. fragment from Book of Invasions in LL 8.

Footnote 168:(return)

Harl. MS. 5280, translated in RC xii. 59 f.

Footnote 169:(return)

RC xii. 60; D'Arbois, v. 405 f.

Footnote 170:(return)

For Celtic brother-sister unions see p. 224.

Footnote 171:(return)

O'Donovan, Annals, i. 16.

Footnote 172:(return)

RC xv. 439.

Footnote 173:(return)

RC xii. 71.

Footnote 174:(return)

Professor Rh[^y]s thinks the Partholan story is the aboriginal, the median the Celtic version of the same event. Partholan, with initial p cannot be Goidelic (Scottish Review, 1890, "Myth. Treatment of Celtic Ethnology").

Footnote 175:(return)

HL 591.

Footnote 176:(return)

CM ix. 130; Campbell LF 68.

Footnote 177:(return)

RC xii. 75.

Footnote 178:(return)

US 211.

Footnote 179:(return)

D'Arbois, ii. 52; RC xii. 476.

Footnote 180:(return)

RC xii. 73.

Footnote 181:(return)

RC xii. 105.

Footnote 182:(return)

RC xxii. 195.

Footnote 183:(return)

Larmime, "Kian, son of Kontje."

Footnote 184:(return)

See p. 78; LL 245b.

Footnote 185:(return)

Mannhardt, Mythol. Forsch. 310 f.

Footnote 186:(return)

"Fir Domnann," "men of Domna," a goddess (Rh[^y]s, HL 597), or a god (D'Arbois, ii. 130). "Domna" is connected with Irish-words meaning "deep" (Windisch, IT i. 498; Stokes, US 153). Domna, or Domnu, may therefore have been a goddess of the deep, not the sea so much as the underworld, and so perhaps an Earth-mother from whom the Fir Domnann traced their descent.

Footnote 187:(return)

Cormac, s.v. "Neith"; D'Arbois, v. 400; RC xii. 61.

Footnote 188:(return)

LU 50. Tethra is glossed badb (IT i. 820).

Footnote 189:(return)

IT i. 521; Rh[^y]s, HL 274 f.

Footnote 190:(return)

RC xii. 95.

Footnote 191:(return)

RC xii. 101.

Footnote 192:(return)

See p. 374.

Footnote 193:(return)

D'Arbois, ii. 198, 375.

Footnote 194:(return)

HL 90-91.

Footnote 195:(return)

HL 274, 319, 643. For Beli, see p. 112, infra.

Footnote 196:(return)

Whatever the signification of the battle of Mag-tured may be, the place which it was localised is crowded with Neolithic megaliths, dolmens, etc. To later fancy these were the graves of warriors slain in a great battle fought there, and that battle became the fight between Fomorians and Tuatha Dé Dananns. Mag-tured may have been the scene of a battle between their respective worshippers.

Footnote 197:(return)

O'Grady, ii. 203.

Footnote 198:(return)

It should be observed that, as in the Vedas, the Odyssey, the Japanese Ko-ji-ki, as well as in barbaric and savage mythologies, Märchen formulæ abound in the Irish mythological cycle.




The meaning formerly given to Tuatha Dé Danann was "the men of science who were gods," danann being here connected with dán, "knowledge." But the true meaning is "the tribes or folk of the goddess Danu,"