The Religion of the Ancient Celts

Page: 140


Pliny, HN xvi. 249.

Footnote 1003:(return)

D'Arbois, Les Druides, 85, following Thurneysen.

Footnote 1004:(return)

D'Arbois, op. cit. 12 f.; Deloche, Revue des Deux Mondes, xxxiv. 466; Desjardins, Geog. de la Gaule Romaine, ii. 518.

Footnote 1005:(return)

Cæsar, vi. 13.

Footnote 1006:(return)

Pliny, HN xxx. 1.

Footnote 1007:(return)

Rh[^y]s, CB4 69 f.

Footnote 1008:(return)

Gomme, Ethnol. in Folk-lore, 58, Village Community, 104.

Footnote 1009:(return)

Sergi, The Mediterranean Race, 295.

Footnote 1010:(return)

Reinach, "L'Art plastique en Gaule et le Druidisme," RC xiii. 189.

Footnote 1011:(return)

Holmes, Cæsar's Conquest of Gaul, 15; Dottin, 270.

Footnote 1012:(return)

Diog. Laert. i. 1; Livy xxiii. 24.

Footnote 1013:(return)

Desjardins, op. cit. ii. 519; but cf. Holmes, 535.

Footnote 1014:(return)

Gutuatros is perhaps from gutu-, "voice" (Holder, i. 2046; but see Loth, RC xxviii. 120). The existence of the gutuatri is known from a few inscriptions (see Holder), and from Hirtius, de Bell. Gall. viii. 38, who mentions a gutuatros put to death by Cæsar.

Footnote 1015:(return)

D'Arbois, Les Druides, 2 f., Les Celtes, 32.

Footnote 1016:(return)

Ausonius, Professor. v. 7, xi. 24.

Footnote 1017:(return)

Lucan, iii. 424; Livy, xxiii. 24.

Footnote 1018:(return)

Diod. Sic. v. 31; Strabo, iv. 4. 4; Timagenes apud Amm. Marc. xv. 9.

Footnote 1019:(return)

Cicero, de Div. i. 41. 90; Tac. Hist. iv. 54.

Footnote 1020:(return)

Phars. i. 449 f.

Footnote 1021:(return)

HN xxx. i.

Footnote 1022:(return)

Filid, sing. File, is from velo, "I see" (Stokes, US 277).

Footnote 1023:(return)

Fáthi is cognate with Vates.

Footnote 1024:(return)

In Wales there had been Druids as there were Bards, but all trace of the second class is lost. Long after the Druids had passed away, the fiction of the derwydd-vardd or Druid-bard was created, and the later bards were held to be depositories of a supposititious Druidic theosophy, while they practised the old rites in secret. The late word derwydd was probably invented from derw, "oak," by some one who knew Pliny's derivation. See D'Arbois, Les Druides, 81.

Footnote 1025:(return)

For these views see Dottin, 295; Holmes, 17; Bertrand, 192-193, 268-269.

Footnote 1026:(return)

Diog. Laert. i. proem. 1. For other references see Cæsar, vi. 13, 14; Strabo, iv. 4. 4; Amm. Marc. xv. 9; Diod. Sic, v. 28; Lucan, i. 460; Mela, iii. 2.

Footnote 1027:(return)

Suet. Claud. 25; Mela, iii. 2.

Footnote 1028:(return)

Pliny, xxx. 1.

Footnote 1029:(return)

D'Arbois, Les Druides, 77.

Footnote 1030:(return)

Diod. Sic. v. 31. 4.

Footnote 1031:(return)

See Cicero, de Div. i. 41.

Footnote 1032:(return)

Diod. Sic. v. 28; Amm. Marc. xv. 9; Hippolytus, Refut. Hær. i. 22.

Footnote 1033:(return)

Amm. Marc. xv. 9.

Footnote 1034:(return)

Cæsar, vi. 14.

Footnote 1035:(return)

Diog. Laert. 6. Celtic enthusiasts see in this triple maxim something akin to the Welsh triads, which they claim to be Druidic!

Footnote 1036:(return)

Bertrand, 280.

Footnote 1037:(return)

Cæsar, vi. 13.

Footnote 1038:(return)

Trip. Life, ii. 325, i. 52, ii. 402; IT i. 373; RC xxvi. 33. The title rig-file, "king poet," sometimes occurs.

Footnote 1039:(return)

Cæsar, vi. 14.

Footnote 1040:(return)

Cæsar, vi. 13; Strabo, iv. 4. 4.

Footnote 1041:(return)

Strabo, xii. 5. 2.

Footnote 1042:(return)

Their judicial powers were taken from them because their speech had become obscure. Perhaps they gave their judgments in archaic language.

Footnote 1043:(return)

Diod. Sic. v. 31. 5.

Footnote 1044:(return)

Cæsar, vii. 33.

Footnote 1045:(return)

IT i. 213; D'Arbois, v. 186.

Footnote 1046:(return)

Dio, Orat. xlix.

Footnote 1047:(return)

LL 93.

Footnote 1048:(return)

Ancient Laws of Ireland, i. 22.

Footnote 1049:(return)

Cæsar, vi. 13, 14; Windisch, Táin, line 1070 f.; IT i. 325; Arch. Rev. i. 74; Trip. Life, 99; cf. O'Curry, MC ii. 201.

Footnote 1050:(return)

Cæsar, vi. 14; Strabo, iv. 4. 4.

Footnote 1051:(return)

Trip. Life, 284.

Footnote 1052:(return)

Lucan, i. 451.

Footnote 1053:(return)

Diod. v. 31. 4; cf. Cæsar, vi. 13, 16; Strabo, iv. 4. 5.

Footnote 1054:(return)

See p. 248, supra.

Footnote 1055:(return)

RC xiv. 29; Miss Hull, 4, 23, 141; IT iii. 392, 423; Stokes, Félire, Intro. 23.

Footnote 1056:(return)

Loth, i. 56.

Footnote 1057:(return)

See my art. "Baptism (Ethnic)" in Hastings' Encyclopædia of Religion and Ethics, ii. 367 f.

Footnote 1058:(return)

Carmichael, Carm. Gadel. i. 115.

Footnote 1059:(return)

See p. 206, supra.

Footnote 1060:(return)

IT i. 215.

Footnote 1061:(return)

O'Curry, MS. Mat. 221, 641.

Footnote 1062:(return)

RC xvi. 34.

Footnote 1063:(return)

Pliny, HN xvi. 45; Trip. Life, ii. 325; Strabo, iv. 275.

Footnote 1064:(return)

RC xxii. 285; O'Curry, MC ii. 215.

Footnote 1065:(return)

Reeves' ed. of Adamnan's Life of S. Col. 237; Todd, S. Patrick, 455; Joyce, SH i. 234. For the relation of the Druidic tonsure to the peculiar tonsure of the Celtic Church, see Rh[^y]s, HL 213, CB4 72; Gougaud, Les Chrétientés Celtiques, 198.

Footnote 1066:(return)

See Hyde, Lit. Hist. of Ireland, 88; Joyce, SH i. 239.

Footnote 1067:(return)

Cæsar, vi. 14, ii. 10.

Footnote 1068:(return)

Suetonius, Claud. 25.

Footnote 1069:(return)

Pliny HN xxx. 1; Suet. Claud. 25.

Footnote 1070:(return)

de Cæsaribus, 4, "famosæ superstitiones"; cf. p. 328, infra.

Footnote 1071:(return)

Mela, iii. 2.

Footnote 1072:(return)

Mommsen, Rom. Gesch. v. 94.

Footnote 1073:(return)

Bloch (Lavisse), Hist. de France, i. 2, 176 f., 391 f.; Duruy, "Comment périt l'institution Druidique," Rev. Arch. xv. 347; de Coulanges, "Comment le Druidisme a disparu," RC iv. 44.

Footnote 1074:(return)

Les Druides, 73.

Footnote 1075:(return)

Phars. i. 453, "Ye Druids, after arms were laid aside, sought once again your barbarous ceremonials.... In remote forests do ye inhabit the deep glades."

Footnote 1076:(return)

Mela, iii. 2.

Footnote 1077:(return)

Tacit. iii. 43.

Footnote 1078:(return)

Ibid. iv. 54.

Footnote 1079:(return)

Ausonius, Prof. v. 12, xi. 17.

Footnote 1080:(return)

Nennius, 40. In the Irish version they are called "Druids." See p. 238, supra.

Footnote 1081:(return)

Pliny, xxx. 1.

Footnote 1082:(return)

Adamnan, Vita S. Col., i. 37. ii. 35, etc.; Reeves' Adamnan, 247 f.; Stokes, Three Homilies, 24 f.; Antient Laws of Ireland, i. 15; RC xvii. 142 f.; IT i. 23.

Footnote 1083:(return)

Lampridius, Alex. Sev. 60; Vopiscus, Numerienus, 14, Aurelianus, 44.

Footnote 1084:(return)

Windisch, Táin, 31, 221; cf. Meyer, Contributions to Irish Lexicog. 176 Joyce, SH i. 238.

Footnote 1085:(return)

IT i. 56.

Footnote 1086:(return)

Solinus, 35; Tac. Ann. xiv. 30.

Footnote 1087:(return)

RC xv. 326, xvi. 34, 277; Windisch, Táin, 331. In LL 75b we hear of "three Druids and three Druidesses."

Footnote 1088:(return)

See p. 69, supra; Keating, 331.

Footnote 1089:(return)

Jullian, 100; Holder, s.v. "Thucolis."

Footnote 1090:(return)

Plutarch, Vir. mul. 20.

Footnote 1091:(return)

Mela, iii. 6; Strabo, iv. 4. 6.

Footnote 1092:(return)

Reinach, RC xviii. 1 f. The fact that the rites were called Dionysiac is no reason for denying the fact that some orgiastic rites were practised. Classical writers usually reported all barbaric rites in terms of their own religion. M. D'Arbois (vi. 325) points out that Circe was not a virgin, and had not eight companions.




The Celts, like all other races, were devoted to magical practices, many of which could be used by any one, though, on the whole, they were in the hands of the Druids, who in many aspects were little higher than the shamans of barbaric tribes. But similar magical rites were also attributed to the gods, and it is probably for this reason that the Tuatha Dé Danann and many of the divinities who appear in the Mabinogion are described as magicians. Kings are also spoken of as wizards, perhaps a reminiscence of the powers of the priest king. But since many of the primitive cults had been in the hands of women, and as these cults implied a large use of magic, they may have been the earliest wielders of magic, though, with increasing civilisation, men took their place as magicians. Still side by side with the magic-wielding Druids, there were classes of women who also dealt in magic, as we have seen. Their powers were feared, even by S. Patrick, who classes the "spells of women" along with those of Druids, and, in a mythic tale, by the father of Connla, who, when the youth was fascinated by a goddess, feared that he would be taken by the "spells of women" (brichta ban).1093 In other tales women perform all such magical actions as are elsewhere ascribed to Druids.1094 And after the Druids had passed away precisely {320} similar actions—power over the weather, the use of incantations and amulets, shape-shifting and invisibility, etc.—were, and still are in remote Celtic regions, ascribed to witches. Much of the Druidic art, however, was also supposed to be possessed by saints and clerics, both in the past and in recent times. But women remained as magicians when the Druids had disappeared, partly because of female conservatism, partly because, even in pagan times, they had worked more or less secretly. At last the Church proscribed them and persecuted them.

Each clan, tribe, or kingdom had its Druids, who, in time of war, assisted their hosts by magic art. This is reflected back upon the groups of the mythological cycle, each of which has its Druids who play no small part in the battles fought. Though Pliny recognises the priestly functions of the Druids, he associates them largely with magic, and applies the name magus to them.1095 In Irish ecclesiastical literature, drui is used as the translation of magus, e.g. in the case of the Egyptian magicians, while magi is used in Latin lives of saints as the equivalent of the vernacular druides. In the sagas and in popular tales Druidecht, "Druidism," stands for "magic," and slat an draoichta, "rod of Druidism," is a magic wand. The Tuatha Dé Danann were said to have learned "Druidism" from the four great master Druids of the region whence they had come to Ireland, and even now, in popular tales, they are often called "Druids" or "Danann Druids." Thus in Ireland at least there is clear evidence of the great magical power claimed by Druids.