The Religion of the Ancient Celts

Page: 12


Ripley, Races of Europe; Wilser, L'Anthropologie, xiv. 494; Collignon, ibid. 1-20; Broca, Rev. d'Anthrop. ii. 589 ff.

Footnote 7:(return)

Sergi, The Mediterranean Race, 241 ff., 263 ff.

Footnote 8:(return)

Keane, Man, Past and Present, 511 ff., 521, 528.

Footnote 9:(return)

Broca, Mem. d'Anthrop. i. 370 ff. Hovelacque thinks, with Keane, that the Gauls learned Celtic from the dark round-heads. But Galatian and British Celts, who had never been in contact with the latter, spoke Celtic. See Holmes, Cæsar's Conquest of Gaul, 311-312.

Footnote 10:(return)

Cæsar, i. 1; Collignon, Mem. Soc. d'Anthrop. de Paris, 3me ser. i. 67.

Footnote 11:(return)

Cæsar, i. 1.

Footnote 12:(return)

Cæsar, ii. 30.

Footnote 13:(return)

Cæsar, i. 1; Strabo, iv. 1. 1.

Footnote 14:(return)

Cf. Holmes, 295; Beddoe, Scottish Review, xix. 416.

Footnote 15:(return)

D'Arbois, Les Celtes, 175.

Footnote 16:(return)

Cæsar, ii. 4; Strabo, vii. 1. 2. Germans are taller and fairer than Gauls; Tacitus, Agric. ii. Cf. Beddoe, JAI xx. 354-355.

Footnote 17:(return)

D'Arbois, PH ii. 374. Welsh Gwydion and Teutonic Wuotan may have the same root, see p. 105. Celtic Taranis has been compared to Donar, but there is no connection, and Taranis was not certainly a thunder-god. Much of the folk-religion was alike, but this applies to folk-religion everywhere.

Footnote 18:(return)

D'Arbois, ii. 251.

Footnote 19:(return)

Beddoe, L'Anthropologie, v. 516. Tall, fair, and highly brachycephalic types are still found in France, ibid. i. 213; Bortrand-Reinach, Les Celtes, 39.

Footnote 20:(return)

Beddoe, 516; L'Anthrop., v. 63; Taylor, 81; Greenwell, British Barrows, 680.

Footnote 21:(return)

Fort. Rev. xvi. 328; Mem. of London Anthr. Soc., 1865.

Footnote 22:(return)

Ripley, 309; Sergi, 243; Keane, 529; Taylor, 112.

Footnote 23:(return)

Taylor, 122, 295.

Footnote 24:(return)

The Walloons are both dark and fair.

Footnote 25:(return)

D'Arbois, PH ii. 132.

Footnote 26:(return)

Rh[^y]s, Proc. Phil. Soc. 1891; "Celtæ and Galli," Proc. Brit. Acad. ii. D'Arbois points out that we do not know that these words are Celtic (RC xii, 478).

Footnote 27:(return)

See pp. 51, 376.

Footnote 28:(return)

Cæsar, i. 1.

Footnote 29:(return)

CB4 160.

Footnote 30:(return)

Skene, i. ch. 8; see p. 135.

Footnote 31:(return)

ZCP iii. 308; Keltic Researches.

Footnote 32:(return)

Windisch, "Kelt. Sprachen," Ersch-Gruber's Encylopädie; Stokes, Linguistic Value of the Irish Annals.

Footnote 33:(return)

THSC 1895-1896, 55 f.

Footnote 34:(return)

CM xii. 434.

Footnote 35:(return)

In the Isle of Skye, where, looking at names of prominent places alone, Norse derivatives are to Gaelic as 3 to 2, they are as 1 to 5 when names of insignificant places, untouched by Norse influence, are included.

Footnote 36:(return)

Rh[^y]s, CB4 241.

Footnote 37:(return)

D'Arbois, Les Celtes, 22.

Footnote 38:(return)

Bede, Eccl. Hist. i. 12.

Footnote 39:(return)

Adamnan, Vita S. Col.

Footnote 40:(return)

See p. 222.

Footnote 41:(return)

Dio Cass. lxxvi. 12; Cæsar, v. 14. See p. 223.

Footnote 42:(return)

Isidore, Etymol. ix. 2, 103; Rh[^y]s, CB 242-243; Cæsar, v. 14; Nicholson, ZCP in. 332.

Footnote 43:(return)

Tacitus, Agric. ii.

Footnote 44:(return)

If Celtæ is from qelo, "to raise," it may mean "the lofty," just as many savages call themselves "the men," par excellence. Rh[^y]s derives it from qel, "to slay," and gives it the sense of "warriors." See Holder, s.v.; Stokes, US 83. Galatæ is from gala (Irish gal), "bravery." Hence perhaps "warriors."

Footnote 45:(return)

"Galli" may be connected with "Galatæ," but D'Arbois denies this. For all these titles see his PH ii. 396 ff.

Footnote 46:(return)

Livy, v. 31 f.; D'Arbois, PH ii. 304, 391.

Footnote 47:(return)

Strabo, iv. 10. 3; Cæsar, i. 31, vii. 4; Frag. Hist. Græc. i. 437.

Footnote 48:(return)

Cæsar, ii. 4.

Footnote 49:(return)

Strabo, xii. 5. 1.

Footnote 50:(return)

Polybius, ii. 22.

Footnote 51:(return)

Cæsar, i. 2, 1-3.

Footnote 52:(return)

On the subject of Celtic unity see Jullian, "Du patriotisme gaulois," RC xxiii. 373.