Myths of Babylonia and Assyria

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[190] It is suggested that Arthur is derived from the Celtic word for "bear". If so, the bear may have been the "totem" of the Arthur tribe represented by the Scottish clan of MacArthurs.
[191] See "Lady in the Straw" beliefs in Brand's Popular Antiquities, vol. ii, 66 et seq. 1899 ed.).
[192] Like the Etana "mother eagle" Garuda was a slayer of serpents (Chapter III).
[193] Vana Parva section of the Mahábhárata (Roy's trans.), p. 818 et seq., and Indian Myth and Legend, p. 413.
[194] The Koran (with notes from approved commentators), trans. by George Sale, P-246, n.
[195] The Life and Exploits of Alexander the Great, E. Wallis Budge (London, 1896), pp. 277-8, 474-5.
[196] Campbell's West Highland Tales, vol. iii, pp. 251-4 (1892 ed.).
[197] Religion of the Ancient Egyptians, A. Wiedemann, p. 141.
[198] Adi Parva section of the Mahàbhàrata (Hymn to Garuda), Roy's trans., p. 88, 89.
[199] Herodian, iv, 2.
[200] The image made by Nebuchadnezzar is of interest in this connection. He decreed that "whoso falleth not down and worshippeth" should be burned in the "fiery furnace". The Hebrews, Shadrach, Meshach, and Abed-nego, were accordingly thrown into the fire, but were delivered by God. Daniel, iii, 1-30.
[201] The Assyrian and Phoenician Hercules is discussed by Raoul Rochette in Mémoires de l'Académie des Inscriptions et Belles Lettres (Paris, 1848), pp. 178 et seq.
[202] G. Sale's Koran, p. 246, n.
[203] In the Eddic poem "Lokasenna" the god Byggvir (Barley) is addressed by Loki, "Silence, Barleycorn!" The Elder Edda, translation by Olive Bray, pp. 262, 263.
[204] De Nat. Animal., xii, 21, ed. Didot, p. 210, quoted by Professor Budge in The Life and Exploits of Alexander the Great, p. 278, n.
[205] Isaiah, lvii, 4 and 5.
[206] The Golden Bough (Adonis, Attis, Osiris vol.), "The Gardens of Adonis", pp. 194 et seq. (3rd ed.).
[207] Daniel, iv, 33. It is possible that Nebuchadnezzar, as the human representative of the god of corn and fertility, imitated the god by living a time in the wilds like Ea-bani.
[208] Pronounce ch guttural.
[209] On a cylinder seal the heroes each wrestle with a bull.
[210] Alexander the Great in the course of his mythical travels reached a mountain at the world-end. "Its peak reached to the first heaven and its base to the seventh earth."--Budge.
[211] Jastrow's trans., Aspects of Religious Belief and Practice in Babylonia and Assyria, p. 374.
[212] Development of Religion and Thought in Ancient Egypt (1912), J.H. Breasted, pp. 183-5.
[213] Ecclesiastes, ix, 7-9.
[214] Ibid., xii, 13.
[215] Perhaps brooding and undergoing penance like an Indian Rishi with purpose to obtain spiritual power.
[216] Probably to perform the ceremony of pouring out a libation.
[217] Saxo, iii, 71.
[218] Ibid., viii, 291.
[219] The Elder Edda, O. Bray, pp. 157 et seq. See also Teutonic Myth and Legend.
[220] The Life and Exploits of Alexander the Great, E. Wallis Budge, pp. xl et seq., 167 et seq.
[221] The Koran, trans, by G. Sale, pp. 222, 223 (chap. xviii).
[222] Vana Parva section of the Mahàbhàrata (Roy's trans.), pp. 435-60, and Indian Myth and Legend, pp. 105-9.
[223] Vana Parva section of the Mahàbhàrata (Roy's translation), pp. 832, 833.

Chapter IX. Deluge Legend, the Island of the Blessed, and Hades


Babylonian Story of the Flood--The Two Immortals on the Island of the Blessed--Deluge Legends in the Old and New Worlds--How Babylonian Culture reached India--Theory of Cosmic Periods--Gilgamesh resembles the Indian Yama and Persian Yimeh--Links with Varuna and Mitra--The Great Winter in Persian and Teutonic Mythologies--Babylonian Hades compared with the Egyptian, Greek, Indian, Teutonic, and Celtic Otherworlds--Legend of Nergal and the Queen of Death--Underworld originally the Grave--Why Weapons, &c., were Buried with the Dead--Japanese and Roman Beliefs--Palaeolithic Burial Customs--"Our Graves are our Houses"--Importance of Babylonian Funerary Ceremonies--Doctrine of Eternal Bliss in Egypt and India--Why Suppressed in Babylonia--Heavy Burial Fees--Various Burial Customs.

The story of the Deluge which was related to Gilgamesh by Pir-napishtim runs as follows:--

"Hear me, O Gilgamesh, and I will make revelation regarding the hidden doings of the high gods. As thou knowest, the city of Shurippak is situated upon the bank of the Euphrates. The gods were within it: there they assembled together in council. Anu, the father, was there, and Bel the counsellor and warrior, Ninip the messenger, and Ennugi the governor. Ea, the wise lord, sat also with them. In their hearts the gods agreed together to send a great deluge.