Custom and Myth

Page: 101


{114a} Strabo, xiii. 604.

{114b} Eustathius on Iliad, i. 39.

{114c} A Strange and True Relation of the Prodigious Multitude of Mice, 1670.

{115a} Journal of Philol., xvii. p. 96.

{115b} Leviticus xi. 29.

{116} Samuel i. 5, 6.

{117a} Zool. Myth, ii. 68.

{117b} Mélusine, N.S. i.

{118a} De Iside et Osiride, lxxvi.

{118b} This hypothesis does not maintain that totemism prevailed in Greece during historic times. Though Plutarch mentions an Athenian yενος, the Ioxidæ, which claimed descent from and revered asparagus, it is probable that genuine totemism had died out of Greece many hundreds of years before even Homer’s time. But this view is not inconsistent with the existence of survivals in religion and ritual.

{119} Rolland, Faune populaire.

{121} The attempt is not to explain the origin of each separate name but only of the general habit of giving animal or human names stars.

{125} Mr. Herbert Spencer believes that the Australians were once more civilised than at present. But there has never been found a trace of pottery on the Australian continent, which says little for their civilisation in the past.

{128} Brugsch, History of Egypt, i. 32.

{130} Brough Smith.

{131} Amazonian Tortoise Myths, p. 39.

{132a} Sahagun, vii. 3.

{132b} Grimm, D. M., Engl. transl., p. 716.

{133} Hartt, op. cit., p. 40.

{134a} Kaegi, Der Rig Veda, p. 217.

{134b} Mainjo-i-Khard, 49, 22, ed. West.

{134c} Op. cit. p. 98.

{137} Prim. Cult., i. 357.

{140} Lectures on Language, pp. 359, 362.

{144} Grimm, D. M., Engl., Trans. p. 1202.

{145} Tom Sawyer, p. 87.

{146a} Rep. vi. 488. Dem. 10, 6.

{146b} Journal Anthrop. Inst., Feb. 1881.

{147a} Gregor, Folklore of North-east Counties, p, 40.

{147b} Wars of Jews, vii. 6, 3.

{147c} Var. Hist., 14, 27.

{148} Max Müller, Selected Essays, ii. 622.

{151} Myth of Kirkê, p. 80.

{152a} Turner’s Samoa.

{152b} Josephus, loc. cit. For this, and many other references, I am indebted to Schwartz’s Prähistorisch-änthropologische Studien. In most magic herbs the learned author recognises thunder and lightning—a theory no less plausible than Mr. Brown’s.

{152c} Lib. xxviii.

{152d} Schoolcraft.

{157a} Talvj, Charakteristik der Volkslieder, p. 3.

{157b} Fauriel, Chants de la Grèce moderne.

{160} Thus Scotland scarcely produced any ballads, properly speaking, after the Reformation. The Kirk suppressed the dances to whose motion the ballad was sung in Scotland, as in Greece, Provence, and France.

{161} L. Preller’s Ausgewählte Aufsätze. Greek ideas on the origin of Man. It is curious that the myth of a gold, a silver, and a copper race occurs in South America. See Brasseur de Bourbourg’s Notes on the Popol Vuh.

{164a} See essay on Early History of the Family.

{164b} This constant struggle may be, and of course by one school of comparative mythologists will be, represented as the strife between light and darkness, the sun’s rays, and the clouds of night, and so on. M. Castren has well pointed out that the struggle has really an historical meaning. Even if the myth be an elementary one, its constructors must have been in the exogamous stage of society.

{169} Sampo may be derived from a Thibetan word, meaning ‘fountain of good,’ or it may possibly be connected with the Swedish Stamp, a hand-mill. The talisman is made of all the quaint odds and ends that the Fetichist treasures: swan’s feathers, flocks of wool, and so on.

{170} Sir G. W. Cox’s Popular Romances of the Middle Ages, p. 19.

{171} Fortnightly Review, 1869: ‘The Worship of Plants and Animals.’

{176} Mr. McLennan in the Fortnightly Review, February 1870.

{178} M. Schmidt, Volksleben der Neugriechen, finds comparatively few traces of the worship of Zeus, and these mainly in proverbial expressions.

{183} Preller, Ausgewählte Aufsätze, p. 154.

{184a} Tylor, Prim. Cult., ii. 156. Pinkerton, vii. 357.

{184b} Universities Mission to Central Africa, p. 217. Prim. Cult,, ii. 156, 157.

{186} Quoted in ‘Jacob’s Rod’: London, n.d., a translation of La Verge de Jacob, Lyon, 1693.

{190} Lettres sur la Baguette, pp. 106-112.

{200} Turner’s Samoa, pp, 77, 119.

{201} Cox, Mythol. of Aryan Races, passim.

{202a} See examples in ‘A Far-travelled Tale,’ ‘Cupid and Psyche,’ and ‘The Myth of Cronus.’

{202b} Trübner, 1881.

{203a} Hahn, p. 23.

{203b} Ibid., p. 45.

{204} Expedition, i. 166.

{205} Herodotus, ii.

{209} See Fetichism and the Infinite.

{211} Sacred Books of the East, xii. 130, 131,

{218} Lectures on Language. Second series, p. 41.

{222} A defence of the evidence for our knowledge of savage faiths, practices, and ideas will be found in Primitive Culture, i. 9-11.

{223} A third reference to Pausanias I have been unable to verify. There are several references to Greek fetich-stones in Theophrastus’s account of the Superstitious Man. A number of Greek sacred stones named by Pausanias may be worth noticing. In Bœotia (ix. 16), the people believed that Alcmene, mother of Heracles, was changed into a stone. The Thespians worshipped, under the name of Eros, an unwrought stone, αyαλμα παλαιοτατον, ‘their most ancient sacred object’ (ix. 27). The people of Orchomenos ‘paid extreme regard to certain stones,’ said to have fallen from heaven, ‘or to certain figures made of stone that descended from the sky’ (ix. 38). Near Chæronea, Rhea was said to have deceived Cronus, by offering him, in place of Zeus, a stone wrapped in swaddling bands. This stone, which Cronus vomited forth after having swallowed it, was seen by Pausanias at Delphi (ix. 41). By the roadside, near the city of the Panopeans, lay the stones out of which Prometheus made men (x. 4). The stone swallowed in place of Zeus by his father lay at the exit from the Delphian temple, and was anointed (compare the action of Jacob, Gen. xxviii. 18) with oil every day. The Phocians worshipped thirty squared stones, each named after a god (vii. xxii.). ‘Among all the Greeks rude stones were worshipped before the images of the gods.’ Among the Trœzenians a sacred stone lay in front of the temple, whereon the Trœzenian elders sat, and purified Orestes from the murder of his mother. In Attica there was a conical stone worshipped as Apollo (i. xliv.). Near Argos was a stone called Zeus Cappotas, on which Orestes was said to have sat down, and so recovered peace of mind. Such are examples of the sacred stones, the oldest worshipful objects, of Greece.

{226} See essays on ‘Apollo and the Mouse’ and ‘The Early History of the Family.’

{230} Here I may mention a case illustrating the motives of the fetich-worshipper. My friend, Mr. J. J. Atkinson, who has for many years studied the manners of the people of New Caledonia, asked a native why he treasured a certain fetich-stone. The man replied that, in one of the vigils which are practised beside the corpses of deceased friends, he saw a lizard. The lizard is a totem, a worshipful animal in New Caledonia. The native put out his hand to touch it, when it disappeared and left a stone in its place. This stone he therefore held sacred in the highest degree. Here then a fetich-stone was indicated as such by a spirit in form of a lizard.

{233a} Much the same theory is propounded in Mr. Müller’s lectures on ‘The Science of Religion.’

{233b} The idea is expressed in a well known parody of Wordsworth, about the tree which