Bible Myths and their Parallels in other Religions Being a Comparison of the Old and New Testament Myths and Miracles with those of the Heathen Nations of Antiquity Considering also their Origin and Meaning

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[278:1] It is also very evident that the history of Crishna—or that part of it at least which has a religious aspect—is taken from that of Buddha. Crishna, in the ancient epic poems, is simply a great hero, and it is not until about the fourth century B. C., that he is deified and declared to be an incarnation of Vishnu, or Vishnu himself in human form. (See Monier Williams' Hinduism, pp. 102, 103.)

"If it be urged that the attribution to Crishna of qualities or powers belonging to the other deities is a mere device by which his devotees sought to supersede the more ancient gods, the answer must be that nothing is done in his case which has not been done in the case of almost every other member of the great company of the gods, and that the systematic adoption of this method is itself conclusive proof of the looseness and flexibility of the materials of which the cumbrous mythology of the Hindu epic poems is composed." (Cox: Aryan Mythology, vol. ii. p. 130.) These words apply very forcibly to the history of Christ Jesus. He being attributed with qualities and powers belonging to the deities of the heathen is a mere device by which his devotees sought to supersede the more ancient gods.

[278:3] See The Gospel of Mary, Apoc., ch. vii.

[278:4] Hist. Hindostan, vol. ii. p. 329.

[278:5] Mary, Apoc., vii. Luke, i. 28-30.

[278:6] Hist. Hindostan, vol. ii. pp. 317 and 336.

[278:7] Matt. ii. 2.

[279:1] Vishnu Purana, p. 502.

[279:2] Luke, ii. 13.

[279:4] Hist. Hindostan, vol. ii. p. 311. See also, chap. xvi.

[279:6] Protevangelion, Apoc., chs. xii. and xiii.

[279:7] Hist. Hindostan, vol. ii. 311.

[279:8] Infancy, Apoc., ch. i. 2, 3.

[279:10] Luke, ii. 8-10.

[279:11] See Oriental Religions, p. 500, and Inman's Ancient Faiths, vol. ii. p. 353.

[279:12] Matt. ii. 2.

[279:13] Hist. Hindostan, vol. ii. p. 317.

[279:14] Matt., ii. 1, 2.

[279:15] Vishnu Purana, bk. v. ch. iii.

[279:16] Luke, ii. 1-17.

[280:1] Asiatic Researches, vol. i. p. 259. Hist. Hindostan, vol. ii. p. 310.

[280:2] See the Genealogies in Matt. and Luke.

[280:4] Matt. ii. 13.

[280:6] Matt. ii. 16.

[280:7] Hist. Hindostan, vol. ii. p. 317. Asiatic Researches, vol. i. p. 259.

[280:8] Introduc. to Infancy, Apoc. Higgins: Anacalypsis, vol. i. p. 130. Savary: Travels in Egypt, vol. i. p. 126, in Hist. Hindostan, vol. ii. p. 318.

[280:9] Hist. Hindostan, vol. ii. p. 316.

[280:10] "Elizabeth, hearing that her son John was about to be searched for (by Herod), took him and went up into the mountains, and looked around for a place to hide him. . . . But Herod made search after John, and sent servants to Zacharias," &c. (Protevangelion, Apoc. ch. xvi.)

[280:11] Hist. Hindostan, vol. ii. p. 321.

[281:1] Infancy, Apoc., ch. xx. 1-8.

[281:2] Hist. Hindostan, vol. ii. p. 321.

[281:3] Infancy, Apoc., ch. xviii. 1-3.

[281:4] Hist. Hindostan, vol. ii. p. 343.

[281:5] Infancy, Apoc., ch. xviii.

[281:6] Hist. Hindostan, vol. ii. p. 340. Aryan Mytho., vol. ii. p. 136.

[281:7] Infancy, Apoc., ch. xvii.

[281:8] Hist. Hindostan, vol. ii. p. 319, and ch. xxvii. this work.

[281:9] Matthew, viii. 2.

[281:10] Hist. Hindostan, vol. ii. p. 320.

[281:11] Matt. xxvi. 6-7.

[282:1] Prog. Relig. Ideas, vol. i. p. 71.

[282:2] Matt. xxii. Luke, xxviii.

[282:4] John, xix. 34.

[282:5] See Vishnu Purana, p. 612.

[282:6] Luke, xxiii. 43.

[282:10] Matt. xxviii.

[282:12] See Acts, i. 9-11.

[282:14] See passages quoted in ch. xxiv.

[282:15] See Oriental Religions, p. 504.

[282:16] Matt. xxiv. 31. Rom. xiv. 10.

[282:18] John, i. 3. I. Cor. viii. 6. Eph. iii. 9.

[282:19] See Geeta, lec. x. p. 85.

[282:20] Rev. i. 8, 11; xxii. 13; xxi. 6.

[282:21] He is described as a superhuman organ of light, to whom the superhuman organ of darkness, the evil serpent, was opposed. He is represented "bruising the head of the serpent," and standing upon him. (See illustrations in vol. i. Asiatic Researches; vol. ii. Higgins' Anacalypsis; Calmet's Fragments, and other works illustrating Hindoo Mythology.)

[282:22] Jesus, "the Sun of Righteousness," is also described as a superhuman organ of light, opposed by Satan, "the old serpent." He is claimed to have been the seed of the woman who should "bruise the head of the serpent." (Genesis, iii. 15.)

[283:2] According to the New Testament.

[283:3] See Bhagavat Geeta.

[283:4] John, xiii. 23.

[283:5] Williams' Hinduism, p. 215.

[283:6] Ibid. p. 216.

[283:7] Matt. xvii. 1-6.

[283:8] "He was pure and chaste in reality," although represented as sporting amorously, when a youth, with cowherdesses. According to the pure Vaishnava faith, however, Crishna's love for the Gopis, and especially for his favorite Rādhā, is to be explained allegorically, as symbolizing the longing of the human soul for the Supreme. (Prof. Monier Williams: Hinduism, p. 144.) Just as the amorous "Song of Solomon" is said to be allegorical, and to mean "Christ's love for his church."

[283:9] See Indian Antiquities, iii. 46, and Asiatic Researches, vol. i. p. 273.

[283:10] John, xiii.

[283:11] Vishnu Purana, p. 492, note 3.

[283:12] I. Timothy, iii. 16.

[283:13] Brahma, Vishnu, and Siva. Crishna is Vishnu in human form. "A more personal, and, so to speak, human god than Siva was needed for the mass of the people—a god who could satisfy the yearnings of the human heart for religion of faith (bhakti)—a god who could sympathize with, and condescend to human wants and necessities. Such a god was found in the second member of the Tri-mūrti. It was as Vishnu that the Supreme Being was supposed to exhibit his sympathy with human trials, and his love for the human race.

"If Siva is the great god of the Hindu Pantheon, to whom adoration is due from all indiscriminately, Vishnu is certainly its most popular deity. He is the god selected by far the greater number of individuals as their Saviour, protector and friend, who rescues them from the power of evil, interests himself in their welfare, and finally admits them to his heaven. But it is not so much Vishnu in his own person as Vishnu in his incarnations, that effects all this for his votaries." (Prof. Monier Williams: Hinduism, p. 100.)

[283:14] Father, Son, and Holy Ghost. Jesus is the Son in human form.

[284:1] Williams' Hinduism, p. 211.

[284:2] Matt. vi. 6.

[284:3] Williams' Hinduism, p. 212.

[284:4] I. Cor. x. 31.

[284:5] Williams' Hinduism, p. 213.

[284:6] John, i. 3.

[284:7] Williams' Hinduism, p. 213.

[284:8] John, viii. 12.

[284:9] Williams' Hinduism, p. 213.

[284:10] John, xiv. 6.

[284:11] Williams' Hinduism, p. 213.

[284:12] Rev. i. 17, 18.

[284:13] Williams' Hinduism, p. 214.

[284:14] Matt. ix. 2.

[284:15] Prov. xxiii. 26.

[284:16] Rev. xxi. 23.

[284:17] Quoted from Williams' Hinduism, pp. 217-219.

[285:1] It is said in the Hindoo sacred books that Crishna was a religious teacher, but, as we have previously remarked, this is a later addition to his legendary history. In the ancient epic poems he is simply a great hero and warrior. The portion pertaining to his religious career, is evidently a copy of the history of Buddha.

[285:2] "Est Crishna (quod ut mihi pridem indicaverat P. Cassianus Maceratentis, sic nunc uberius in Galliis observatum intelligo avivo litteratissimo De Guignes) nomen ipsum corruptum Christi Servatoris."

[285:3] See Williams' Hinduism, and Maurice: Hist. Hindostan, vol. ii. p. 269.

[285:4] See Celtic Druids, pp. 256, 257.

[286:1] "Alexander the Great made his expedition to the banks of the Indus about 327 B. C., and to this invasion is due the first trustworthy information obtained by Europeans concerning the north-westerly portion of India and the region of the five rivers, down which the Grecian troops were conducted in ships by Nearchus. Megasthenes, who was the ambassador of Seleukos Nikator (Alexander's successor, and ruler over the whole region between the Euphrates and India, B. C. 312), at the court of Candra-gupa (Sandrokottus), in Pataliputra (Patna), during a long sojourn in that city collected further information, of which Strabo, Pliny, Arrian, and others availed themselves." (Williams' Hinduism, p. 4.)

[286:2] Monumental Christianity, p. 151. See also, Asiatic Researches, i. 273.

[286:3] See Asiatic Researches, vol. i. pp. 259-273.

[286:4] Quoted in Monumental Christianity, pp. 151, 152.

[286:6] See Prichard's Egyptian Mythology, p. 112.

[287:1] In speaking of the antiquity of the Bhagavad-gita, Prof. Monier Williams says: "The author was probably a Brahman and nominally a Vishnava, but really a philosopher whose mind was cast in a broad and comprehensive mould. He is supposed to have lived in India during the first and second century of our era. Some consider that he lived as late as the third century, and some place him even later,