King Endymion Picture

Tuxedo Mask (タキシード仮面, Takishīdo Kamen?) is a fictional character and the primary male protagonist of the Sailor Moon metaseries. Really named Mamoru Chiba (地場 衛, Chiba Mamoru?, Darien in the English versions), he disguises himself in order to support the series' central heroines, the Sailor Senshi. Wearing a mask to conceal his identity, he interferes with enemy operations, offers the Senshi advice, and sometimes physically aids them in battle.

Although not himself a Senshi, Tuxedo Mask possesses a power item like theirs, a Sailor Crystal, which gives him guardianship over the planet Earth. He also has psychic powers, including psychometry and healing, which evolve and are important to the story in the manga, but which are minor and remain static in the anime. His primary love interest is Sailor Moon and a significant player in much of the story, having been royalty in the "past life" storyline as well as in the future.

The Japanese version refers to him as "Tuxedo Kamen" while the dub refers to him as "Tuxedo Mask" when calling this character by his codename. He is also commonly known by the nickname used by Chibiusa and Usagi, "Mamo-chan." The dub often shortened his name, "Darien" to "Dar" as a nickname, however this was often inconsistent.
Contents
[hide]

* 1 Profile
* 2 Aspects and forms
o 2.1 Tuxedo Mask
o 2.2 Prince Endymion
o 2.3 King Endymion
o 2.4 Moonlight Knight
* 3 Special powers and items
* 4 Development
* 5 Reception and influence
* 6 Actors
* 7 References
* 8 See also

[edit] Profile

Mamoru Chiba becomes the major romantic interest of Usagi Tsukino. He is often portrayed as stoic, steady and introverted. When he was young his parents died in a car crash. This blocked his childhood memories of his current lifetime and opened up the memories of his previous life as Prince Endymion.[3] When this happened he started to see Princess Serenity in his dreams. Early in the manga, he seeks the Silver Crystal because he is convinced that this will restore his memories fully. He is also the character that gets brainwashed and captured the most throughout the series.

Mamoru and Usagi become boyfriend and girlfriend during the series. They were not always on good terms—in both the manga and anime he and Usagi were antagonistic towards each other when they first met and only developed romantic feelings later on. In the manga those feelings developed well before their identities were discovered;[3] in the anime they showed only shortly before their identities were revealed.[4] Once they became a couple, they became deeply devoted to each other and their love survives many trials. In the manga, they briefly show jealousy in Volume 8, Act 25. Also in the anime they break up in Episode 61, but get back together in Episode 77 when King Endymion sent nightmares to Mamoru making him believe if he stayed with Usagi, she would die. He is always addressed as Mamo-chan by Usagi throughout the series during this time period (Chibiusa also addresses him with this nickname later on). After dating for two years, Mamoru gives Usagi an engagement ring at an airport.[5] Their wedding is shown at the very end of the manga.[6] In the future, they become king and queen and have a child together whom they name, Small Lady, but is in the majority of the series known as Chibiusa.
Mamoru Chiba as seen in the anime. He dresses in casual clothing more frequently in the anime than in the manga, but usually retains a slight hint of formality.

The manga develops Mamoru more extensively, showing that the car-crash happened on his birthday and gives a glimpse of his parents.[3] Mamoru also struggles with his identity throughout the manga, first as who he really is, then later if he's in the way of the Sailor Soldiers.[7] A fair amount of subtle characterization is made for Mamoru, and later extending his role within the manga as to who he is.[8] He also is given the power of psychometry, which also showed up in the anime, but was not given a name. This manifests in his ability to see and read dreams (Such as Chibiusa's), heal people and monitor the status of the Earth. This was not fully developed until the Black Moon arc, and was used occasionally throughout the series.[9] Mamoru also has his left ear pierced in the manga, a trait that does not carry over to his anime counterpart.

The anime tends not to develop Mamoru as much, but shows him as more social than his manga counterpart. He's interested in a variety of subjects and is shown as smart.[10] The musical Kakyu Ouhi Kourin shows that he is aspiring to become a doctor.[11] He also dated Rei Hino for a short time before all the past life identities were revealed, but the relationship did not develop very deeply; Rei and Mamoru broke up after it was discovered that Usagi was Princess Serenity.[12]

Tuxedo Mask plays a significantly more important role in the manga than in the anime. In fact, many of Sailor Moon's transformations and final victories come as a result of her and Tuxedo Mask fusing their powers together. In the final battle against the Dark Kingdom, Queen Metaria absorbed Sailor Moon and Tuxedo Mask into her body. However, they were able to combine their powers through the Silver Crystal to destroy Queen Metaria from within.[13] He also combines his power into Super Sailor Moon's last item in the manga with the rest of the soldiers using the Golden Crystal.[14] In the Infinity story arc, he combined his powers with Sailor Moon to create the next scepter.[15]

The manga tends to show Mamoru as quiet, studious, mysterious and stoic. The student body of his high school often admire him for these qualities.[16] The anime also tends to make him appear in every episode to save Sailor Moon's life. He did have a few attacks that resemble what would seem like some of the attacks in the manga, but these are not given actual names within the anime.

The dub did not make too many significant changes to Mamoru's character. He is a bit more extroverted than his original anime counterpart in the voicing. Darien was more likely to yell and get annoyed than Mamoru of the anime, who was often quiet and distant, even when he was annoyed. A line was also added to an episode in the dub that claimed Darien used to be a model, but this was never referred to again. The original line had Mamoru talking about the attractiveness of a girl's character being more important than physical beauty.[17] It also invented karate as one of his hobbies, which was only mentioned in one episode and never mentioned in the original.[18]

In the musicals, Mamoru protects Usagi and generally appears at her side. Several of his relationships change from musical to musical, however. For example, in one musical it's revealed that Queen Beryl was Mamoru's fiancé from his time as Prince of the Earth. Associating with the Moon Kingdom was against Earth law, and Endymion violated this law when he associated with Princess Serenity. In this version of events, Serenity and Endymion are outlaws (similar to Romeo and Juliet) who drive an otherwise innocent woman, Beryl, to evil by making her jealous.[19] Sailor Pluto also reveals that she is in love with Endymion, though she has contented herself with watching from afar.[20]

Another variation occurs in the Ryuusei Densetsu musical, when Galaxia does not kill Mamoru, leaving him able to fight alongside the Senshi. Mamoru is typically very involved in Senshi battles, fighting alongside the Senshi as opposed to his anime role of throwing a rose and then letting Sailor Moon deliver the finishing blow.

Tuxedo Mask always gets his own song, though his songs vary from musical to musical. In one musical, there were multiple songs as both the present Mamoru appeared as Tuxedo Mask and later King Endymion appeared in disguise as Space Knight to look out for Chibiusa.[21]

The live-action version presents Mamoru as a much more silent, yet dedicated person. For example he stays loyal to Hina, his girlfriend despite not loving her on a promise they made when they were children.[22][23] He is in search of the Silver Crystal due to his amnesia and dreams that told him that the magical object could restore his memories. To do this, he donned the Tuxedo Kamen disguise and became a thief, searching for the legendary crystal.[24] Once his memories of his past and present lives were restored, he assumed his Endymion form to help the Senshi and tried his best to protect Usagi from the dangers of overusing the Silver Crystal.[23] However, because of his dedication he is forced to join the Dark Kingdom or the Shitennou will be killed.[25] He also joins to keep a promise with Usagi that they will not destroy the planet.[26] Learning that the Silver Crystal made Metaria stronger every time Sailor Moon used it, Endymion took Metaria into his body before succumbing to its dark power. Now an evil parody of himself, Dark Prince Endymion, he almost killed Sailor Mercury when Sailor Moon was forced to kill him to stop Metaria.[27] He was revived once Sailor Moon managed to finally control the Crystal's power and destroyed Metaria for good.[28]

[edit] Aspects and forms
First appearance[hide]
Form Manga Anime Live-action
Mamoru Chiba Act 1 Ep. 1 Act 1
Tuxedo Mask Act 1 Ep. 1 Act 1
Prince Endymion Act 9 Ep. 35 Act 25
Evil/Dark Endymion Act 10 Ep. 36 Act 48
Moonlight Knight -- Ep. 49 --
King Endymion Act 18 Ep. 83 --

As a character with different incarnations, special powers, transformations and a long lifetime spanning the Silver Millennium era and the 30th century, Mamoru gains multiple aspects and aliases as the series progresses.

[edit] Tuxedo Mask

"Tuxedo Mask" represents a disguise Mamoru created for himself in order to hunt for the Silver Crystal incognito and, later, assist the Sailor Senshi in battle. In addition to his white mask, he wears a black tuxedo with a black cape (lined red), and in the anime and live-action series carries a black cane which he uses like a sword.

The anime has him standing on poles, defying gravity, and acting as something of a "swoop-in" type. Here he is less developed, and has no special powers or named attacks, but remains a constant force in helping the Sailor Senshi throughout the series when they are in trouble. At the beginning he cannot control the transformation and his body automatically (and painfully) transforms if Sailor Moon is in danger. By the end of the first story arc he can willingly activate the transformation; in a stylized henshin sequence, this is indicated by pulling a rose out of his pocket, which then changes colors, and his tuxedo and mask fly in.[4] Later in the series he is shown transforming instantaneously.[29]

In the manga he starts out as an ordinary thief trying to get the Silver Crystal. Luna initially tells Usagi not to trust him, but relents when they begin to fall in love and his true identity is revealed. His assistance is not confined to that of a rescuer so much as in the anime—it is frequently Sailor Moon who goes to his rescue, and he lends her strength, support and guidance to use the Silver Crystal to defeat the enemies in return.

In the fourth story arc of the manga Helios reinforces Tuxedo Mask's role as a hero by revealing that he, as the Prince of the Golden Kingdom, Elysion, possesses a holy stone in the same way that the Silver Crystal is the holy stone of the Princess of the Silver Millennium.[30] This holy stone is the Golden Crystal, the Sailor Crystal of the Earth.

[edit] Prince Endymion

Endymion (エンディミオン, Endimion?, called Prince Darien in the English-language anime) was the Crown Prince of planet Earth during the Silver Millennium, and Mamoru's identity in a previous life. He resided in the Golden Kingdom, which protected the Earth from within. Even though he and the guardian of Elysion, Helios, never met each other in person during that time, they shared the common desire to protect the planet.[30] Endymion also had four guardians, the Shitennou, who protected him.[31] He and Princess Serenity fell in love, and disobeyed a precept that stated people from the Earth and people from the moon were forbidden to contact one another. In the manga, Beryl killed Endymion in the past.[32] However, in the anime, Queen Metaria killed Prince Endymion in the past.[33] He is reincarnated in the 20th century as Mamoru Chiba.
Endymion in PGSM.

The manga often portrays Prince Endymion as the silent protagonist, his past life is a mystery. Mamoru usually does not transform into Prince Endymion willfully, but is usually used as a power up from his Tuxedo Mask form. He was brainwashed by Queen Metaria of the Dark Kingdom during part of the Dark Kingdom arc, and was referred to as "Endou." Endou was supposed to be a friend of Motoki's. Motoki was brainwashed into believing dark Mamoru was his friend Endou. During his time serving the Dark Kingdom Mamoru appears as an evil form of Endymion.[34] In the anime, Mamoru can transform into Prince Endymion. Often this occurs when Sailor Moon transforms into Princess Serenity. As in the manga, he wears black armor.

In the live-action series, Endymion wears white, and after obtaining this form it becomes Mamoru's primary combat form.[35] He gains the power of teleportation, a power shared by the Shitennou.[36][37] After he takes Metaria into his body, the armor and accessories turn black and he becomes known as Metaria Endymion. He also gains a shroud and black versions of the accessories the Shitennou wear. Remnants of the white armor can be seen underneath.[38]

[edit] King Endymion

Later in the series, Mamoru emerges as King Endymion, King of 30th-century Crystal Tokyo. He is the husband of Neo-Queen Serenity, and father of Chibiusa. As king of Crystal Tokyo his royal garments are a white and lavender tuxedo, as well as a royal staff. King Endymion's first appearance is at the end of manga Act 18. He is not actually in a physical form but a spiritual entity guarding the Crystal Palace while his real body sleeps.[39] During this time he helps to guide the Sailor Senshi and his past self against the Dark Moon Kingdom. It is then revealed to the Senshi that Mamoru never aged due to the Silver Crystal's power. It is the ghost of King Endymion who instructs Tuxedo Mask in the first use of his attack "Tuxedo La Smoking Bomber."[39] Prince Endymion becomes King at the end of the battle with the Dead Moon Circus when Helios, the priest of his former home, Elysion, hands him his sacred golden crystal atop his king's staff. After this, both Tuxedo Mask and Sailor Moon turn into their respective future selves, all of the Sailor Senshi transform into their princess forms.[40] However, after this point, Mamoru is not seen in this form again.

The anime shows King Endymion only in the future as the father of Small Lady and the King of Crystal Tokyo. He is also shown as a computerized image when they first meet him. However, he is never shown to fight in battle. Diana makes a comment about the future King and Queen. She says in SuperS that the King and Queen like to fake being sick to be excused from attending important banquets and meetings.[41] In the English dub, he was not referred to as Endymion; only the "King of the Earth" or "The King".

[edit] Moonlight Knight
Mamoru as the Moonlight Knight

The Moonlight Knight (月影の騎士, Tsukikage no Naito?) appears in the anime only for the first half of Sailor Moon R, the Makaiju arc. When Usagi wished to be a normal girl at the end of the first series, everyone's memories were hidden, including Mamoru's. However, Mamoru subconsciously still wanted to protect Usagi, so his memories separated from him and concentrated into the Moonlight Knight.[42] The Moonlight Knight could co-exist in the same space and time as Mamoru. Like with Tuxedo Mask, Usagi thought every cute guy she knew was him, and was surprised when she discovered who he was. Once Mamoru recovered his memories, the Moonlight Knight disappeared and rejoined with Mamoru. Mamoru returned to being Tuxedo Mask after that point. The Moonlight Knight mainly dresses in Arabian robes and carries a saber. He also throws white roses, instead of Tuxedo Mask's trademark red roses. Moonlight Knight may be a reference to Moonlight Mask, another Japanese superhero.

[edit] Special powers and items
Tuxedo Mask's trademark use of roses as projectile weapons originated in the anime series

Even in civilian form, Mamoru demonstrates a variety of psychic powers throughout each series. In both the anime and manga he uses psychometry to read past, present, and future events through touch,[43] and heals others' wounds through psychokinesis.[44] Inconsistently, he is shown teleporting; just once in the anime, while under Queen Beryl's power,[45] and several times as Prince Endymion in the live-action series.

Mamoru also demonstrates a spiritual connection with Usagi, as he can detect when she has transformed into Sailor Moon.[46] Early on in the anime series, before they become friends, this connection forcibly transforms Mamoru into Tuxedo Mask so that he can protect her.[47] In later episodes, he seems to have control over his transformations, although he still shows up shortly after the start of most of the battles, no matter how far he is away from the action.[15]

On one occasion the anime gives Tuxedo Mask a stylized transformation sequence, with his tuxedo and accessories forming around him as he flings a rose. No special phrase is shouted, although his voice actor jokingly ad-libbed the line, "Tuxedo Power! Make up!"[48] He is also given a joke transformation in the live-action series, using the same phrase, which is a part of an outrageous story he tells Usagi about how he became Tuxedo Mask. This transformation is initiated with a special band-aid, and the sequence consists of Mamoru pulling on his pants and coat with dramatic flair.[49]

Once transformed, Tuxedo Mask displays additional powers. In the anime shows these as mainly physical, while the manga depicts them as rare and magical. His iconic mainstay in the anime is the use of roses, thrown like darts to injure or distract enemies.[50] He can also twirl them or throw a wide array to block attacks,[51] or can throw many at a time to pin an enemy down.[52] He seems to have an unlimited supply of these roses, which are preternaturally strong and embed themselves in most any material, including concrete. In addition, when Mamoru takes on different forms or aspects, his roses change color accordingly. Tuxedo Mask's roses are red, the evil Prince Endymion's are black (and electrified), and the Moonlight Knight's are white.

Tuxedo Mask's secondary weapon, his cane, often serves as a sword,"Usagi's Parental Love? A Curry Triangle Relationship". Sailor Moon R. No. 66. and he can extend its length, either to attack or to rescue people.[53] As both Prince Endymion and Moonlight Knight, he uses real swords of different styles. His only named attack in the anime is "Tuxedo Action," which appears in the Sailor Moon S: The Movie and consists of spinning a top at his enemy.

In the manga, Tuxedo Mask can blast energy from his hand, crying "Tuxedo La Smoking Bomber!" He also has a combination attack with his daughter, Sailor Chibi Moon: "Pink Sugar Tuxedo Attack."[54] The musicals reproduce this attack.

Mamoru's most important magical possession in the manga, the Golden Crystal, serves as both his star seed and as the Sailor Crystal of the Earth. He uses it in combination with Sailor Moon's Silver Crystal to defend the solar system.[55] In the anime, although Mamoru has the "golden star seed" of Earth, it is a separate item from the Golden Crystal, which instead is possessed by Pegasus and can be used by people with good intentions.[56]

[edit] Development

Takeuchi designed the character as her own ideal of a man,[57] describing him as "strong, silent, unshakeable, a little like Captain Harlock".[58] She originally intended his persona as Tuxedo Mask to "have more mysteries and take a greater role".[59]

The name "Mamoru Chiba" was the prototypical name for Makoto Kino.[60] The kanji in Mamoru's surname translate as "earth" (地, chi?) and "place" (場, ba?). Together, they form the term "local", with a pun on his identity as Endymion, Prince of Earth. His given name, meaning "protect" (衛, mamoru?). His name in the English version of the anime, Darien, also means "protector". He rarely uses his surname, but when he does it is retained as Chiba; however, he was given the full name Darien Shields for the English manga.[61] In DiC's first promo for the dub, he was referred to as "The Masked Tuxedo".[62] A preliminary dub name for Mamoru, that appeared on Kodansha's English website in an advertisement for the series, was said to be Mark.[citation needed]

Naoko Takeuchi's original codename for Tuxedo Mask was "Mysterious 2098 Face". She later expressed bewilderment at herself for the idea.[63]

Tohru Furuya expressed in a making-of extra that he had an influence on the development of the anime persona of Tuxedo Mask. When asked if there are any differences between the anime and manga counterparts, he answered, "I'm driving" was his adlib. Because of this, Tuxedo Mask became more comical.[64]

The name Endymion is particularly appropriate, as a reference to Greek mythology. The Greek Endymion is the lover of Selene, Greek goddess of the moon.[65]

[edit] Reception and influence

The official Sailor Moon character popularity polls listed Mamoru Chiba, Tuxedo Mask, and Endymion as separate entities. In 1992, readers ranked Tuxedo Mask as the twelfth most popular character, Prince Endymion as the fifteenth most popular character, and Mamoru Chiba as the sixteenth most popular character out of thirty eight choices.[66] One year later, now with fifty choices, King Endymion was the eighteenth most popular character, while Tuxedo Mask and Mamoru were the twentieth and twenty-first respectively.[67] Moonlight Knight, being an anime only form, was never included in the manga popularity polls. Tuxedo Mask was the fourth favorite male character in a May 1993 Animage poll,[68] and Mamoru was seventh the following year.[69]

Although Takeuchi herself was fond of Mamoru, she has said that friends complained to her about Usagi being in love with "such a useless guy".[70] He has been described as being both a "dashing hero" and a "boy-damsel in distress" by Jonathon Clements and Helen McCarthy.[71] He has even been called a "liability" and a "burden," his relationship with Usagi being described as a child-mother relationship rather than that of a prince and princess. Usagi is said to show him amae, or "indulgent love".[72] When compared to male leads of male-targeted series, Mamoru, although unafraid of girls, is described as being uncomfortable with them. He also gives the impression of being a "character who never laughs or has fun", being "noble, passive and effectively totally ineffectual".[73]

The image of the top hat and cape also influenced the early making of Tuxedo Umino Kamen (Tuxedo Umino Mask) in the anime.[74] In the dub, this character was referred to as Tuxedo Melvin. In this particular episode Umino tries to impress Naru by dressing up like Tuxedo Mask. This image was also borrowed later in the manga for Tubby Mask for the Chibiusa Picture Diary, Story of the Hammer Price Shrine. This character was based on Makoto Hanmatsuura who bid two million yen in a charity auction for the Kobe Earthquake Disaster to be put in the Sailor Moon manga.
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