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The Student's Mythology A Compendium of Greek, Roman, Egyptian, Assyrian, Persian, Hindoo, Chinese, Thibetian, Scandinavian, Celtic, Aztec, and Peruvian Mythologies

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CONTENTS.

CHAPTER I.
Origin of Mythology—Divinities called Celestial 15
CHAPTER II.
Greek and Roman Divinities—Jupiter—Juno—How represented—Parentage and Actions—Probable Origin of these Fables—Adventures of Jupiter—Story of Europa—Search of Cadmus—Punishment of Lycaon 23
CHAPTER III.
Apollo—His Parentage and Exploits—How represented—Story of Æsculapius—Banishment of Apollo from Heaven—Transformation of Hyacinthus and Cyparissus—Story of Admetus and Alcestis—Attributes of Apollo—Punishment inflicted on Marsyas and on King Midas—Story of Midas—Death of Phæton—Transformation of Daphne—Things Sacred to Apollo 29
CHAPTER IV.
Mars (Ares)—His Parentage—How represented—Animals Sacred to Mars—Names given to Mars—His Temple—Priests called Salii 34
CHAPTER V.
Mercury (Hermes)—His Parentage—How represented—Offices of Mercury—Benefits conferred by Mercury on Man—Why considered the Patron of Thieves—Story of Io and Argus 36
CHAPTER VI.
Bacchus (Dionysus)—Parentage of the God—How represented—Story of Semele—Infancy of Bacchus—Transformation of Nymphs into [6] Stars—Silenus—How represented—Exploits of Bacchus—How worshipped—Plants Sacred to the God—Bacchanalia or Orgia—Story of Pentheus—Punishment inflicted on Alcithoe and her Sisters—Transformation of Mariners into Dolphins 39
CHAPTER VII.
Celestial Goddesses—Juno—Hera—Parentage of Juno—How represented—Iris, Messenger of Juno—Children of Juno—Jealousy of the Goddess—Transformation of Callista and Arcas into Bears—Sacrifices offered to the Goddess—Plants held Sacred to her 43
CHAPTER VIII.
Minerva—Pallas Athena—How represented—Origin of the Olive—The Palladium—Minerva, as the Patroness of Female Industry—Story of Arachne—The Bird of Minerva—Story of Medusa’s Head 45
CHAPTER IX.
Venus—Aphrodite—Birth and Education of Venus—Marriage with Vulcan—How represented—Temples of Venus—The Graces—Cupid—Festivals of the Goddess—Birds and Plants Sacred to her—Sacrifices—Temple of Venus Calva—The Apple of Discord—Decision of Paris—Story of Hippomenes and Atalanta—Death of Adonis—Origin of the Red Rose—Names of the Graces 49
CHAPTER X.
Latona—Leto—Her Parentage—Persecution of Juno—Birth of Apollo and Diana—Transformation of Lycian Peasants into Frogs—Punishment of Tityus—Latona a Personification of Night—How represented by Painters and Sculptors 54
CHAPTER XI.
Aurora—Eos—Attributes of the Goddess—How represented—Story of Cephalus and Procris—Marriage of Aurora with Tithonus—Transformation of Tithonus—Memnon—His Death and Obsequies—Vocal Statue 56
CHAPTER XII.
Terrestrial Gods—Saturn—His Parentage—How represented—His History—The Golden Age—Sacrifices offered to Saturn—The Saturnalia—Modern Carnival—Janus—Contradictory Accounts of his Origin—Temple of Janus—Quirinus at Rome 61
[7]CHAPTER XIII.
Vulcan—Hephæstus—Parentage of this God—Why banished from Heaven—Occupation of Vulcan—His Most Celebrated Works—Marriage with Venus—The Cyclops—Vulcania—Temple on Mount Etna—Cacus—Cæculus—Other Works of Vulcan 64
CHAPTER XIV.
Æolus—Supposed origin of the Fable—Momus—His Parentage—Criticisms passed on other Divinities—His Banishment from Olympus 67
CHAPTER XV.
Terrestrial Goddesses—Vesta—Hestia—Her Parentage and Attributes—How represented—Worship of Vesta at Rome—Vestal Virgins—Their Obligations and Privileges—Anecdote 69
CHAPTER XVI.
Cybele—How called by the Greeks—Parentage and Attributes—How represented—Temple of Cybele on Mount Dindymus—Sacred Image—Festival of Megalesia—Galle and Corybantes—Bona Dea—Story of the Vestal Claudia 72
CHAPTER XVII.
Ceres—Demeter—Parentage and Attributes—How represented—Story of Proserpine—Eleusinian Mysteries—Rites practiced—Story of Triptolemus—Sacrifices offered to Ceres—Feasts called Ambarvalia—Described by Virgil 75
CHAPTER XVIII.
Themis—Origin and Attributes—Astræa changed into the Constellation Virgo—Erigone—Nemesis—Her Office—Temple of Nemesis at Rhamnus 80
CHAPTER XIX.
The Muses—Their Number, Names and Attributes—Why there are Nine Muses—Punishment or the Daughters of Pierus 82
CHAPTER XX.
Gods of the Woods, and Rural Deities—Pan—Names given to this Deity—His Origin—How represented—Famous Action related of Pan—Origin of Pan’s Reeds—Satyrs and Fauns—Terminus—Vertumnus—Pales 84
[8]CHAPTER XXI.
Goddesses of the Woods—Diana—Parentage and Attributes of this Goddess—How represented—Habits of Diana—Her Attendants—Punishment of Chione—Story of Niobe—Temple of Diana at Ephesus—Burned by Erostratus—Despoiled by Nero—Plundered by the Goths—Nymphs—Naiades—Oreades—Oceanides—Dryades and Hamadryades—Arethusa—Story of Echo—Transformation of Narcissus 87
CHAPTER XXII.
Gods of the Sea—Neptune—Poseidon—Parentage of the God—How represented—Offices of Neptune—Feasts held at Rome in his Honor—Children of Neptune—Triton—Phorcus or Proteus—Sirens—Ulysses—Orpheus—Scylla and Charybdis—Melicertes—Thetis—Glaucus 93
CHAPTER XXIII.
Infernal Deities—Pluto—Hades—Parentage of the God—His Kingdom—Representations and Emblems—Dis—Plutus—Hell—Cerberus—Fates—Furies—Judges of the Dead—Punishment inflicted on the Condemned—Giants—Ixion—Sisyphus—Tantalus—The Belides—Salmoneus—Elysium 99
CHAPTER XXIV.
Fabulous Monsters—Centaurs—Geryon—Harpies—Briareus—The Chimæra—Explanation of this Fable—The Sphinx—Fabulous History—Statue of the Sphinx in Egypt 105
CHAPTER XXV.
Household Divinities—Penates—Offices and Attributes—Lares—Their Offices—Sacrifices offered to the Goddess Mania—Honors paid to the Lares—Virtues worshipped as Divinities 108
CHAPTER XXVI.
Demigods and Heroes—Their Origin—Hercules—His Parentage—Twelve Labors of the Hero—Field of Narbonne—Death of Hercules 114
CHAPTER XXVII.
Jason—Expedition in search of the Golden Fleece—Medea—Her Revenge—Theseus—Tribute imposed on the Athenians—Departure of Theseus—Destruction of the Minotaur—Ariadne—Death of Ægeus 119
[9]CHAPTER XXVIII.
Castor And Pollux—Their Parentage—Death of Castor—Constellation Gemini—Prometheus—His Parentage—His Impiety—Pandora’s Box—Punishment of Prometheus 123
CHAPTER XXIX.
Orpheus—Story of Eurydice—Death of Orpheus—Transformation of Thracian Women into Trees—Arion—Amphion 125
CHAPTER XXX.
Atlas—His Parentage—Transformed by Perseus into a Mountain—Explanation of the Fable—Pleiades—Hyades—Hesperides—Orion—His Parentage, Exploits and Death—Transformation into a Constellation—Perseus—His Parentage—Rescue of Andromeda—Death of Acrisius 129
CHAPTER XXXI.
Bellerophon—Victory over the Chimæra—His Presumption and its Punishment—Deucalion—Legend of the re-peopling of the Earth after the Deluge—Probable Explanation—Dædalus—Labyrinth—Death of Icarus—Ceyx—Alcyone—Halcyon Birds 134
CHAPTER XXXII.
Meleager—The Calydonian Hunt—Erisichthon, Nisus and Scylla 140
CHAPTER XXXIII.
Poets of Classic Fable—Homer—Hesiod—Virgil—Ovid 145
CHAPTER XXXIV.
Heroes Celebrated by the Poets—Agamemnon—Sacrifice of Iphigenia—Quarrel with Achilles—Murder of Agamemnon by Ægisthus and Clytemnestra—Achilles—His Parentage—Discovered by Ulysses at the Court of Lycomedes—His Quarrel with Agamemnon—Death of Patroclus—Exploits during the Siege—Death of Achilles—Sacrifice of Polyxena—Transformation of Hecuba 152
CHAPTER XXXV.
Ulysses—His Marriage with Penelope—Feigned Insanity—Exploits during the Siege of Troy—Lotus Eaters—Slaying of the Sacred Cattle by the Sailors—Their destruction—Ulysses in the Island of Calypso—Cast on the Shores of Phæacia—His Arrival in Ithaca—Suitors of Penelope—Her Deliverance by Ulysses 156
[10]CHAPTER XXXVI.
Orestes—Education at the Court of Strophius—Pylades—Murder of Clytemnestra—Orestes pursued by the Furies—Discovery of Iphigenia at Tauris—Circumstances added by the Tragic Poets—Hector—Character and Exploits of the Hero; his Death—Fate of Astyanax—Œdipus—Eteocles and Polynices—Theban War—Heroism of Antigone 164
CHAPTER XXXVII.
Æneas—His Parentage—His Flight from Troy—Interview with Andromache at Epirus—Prophecy of Helenus—Æneas driven by a Storm on the Coast of Africa—Received by Dido at Carthage—Departure of Æneas—Death of Dido—Funeral Games—Descent into the Infernal Regions—Landing of Æneas in Italy—War—Death of Turnus and Marriage of Æneas with Lavinia—His Death 171
CHAPTER XXXVIII.
Sibyls—Story of the Cumæan Sibyl—Legend of the Sibylline Books—Their destruction—Opinions entertained regarding these Verses—Divination by Omens—The Augurs—Different Classes of Omens—Anecdote 176
CHAPTER XXXIX.
Oracles—Oracle of Jupiter at Dodona—Manner of giving Responses—Oracle of Delphi—Account given by Diodorus—The Pythia—Remarkable Responses—Unsuccessful attempts made to plunder this Temple—Despoiled by Nero and others—Oracle of Trophonius—Story of the Hero and his Brother—Agamedes—Discovery of the Oracle—Peculiar Rites observed by the Votaries—Oracle of Jupiter Ammon—Its Situation—Temple founded by Bacchus—Expedition sent by Cambyses—Ruins still existing—Fons Solis—Account given by Belzoni—Oracle of Esculapius at Epidaurus—Remarkable Embassy sent to Epidaurus by the Roman Senate—Treatment of Votaries in the different Oracles of Esculapius—Oracle of the Castalian Fount—Anecdote of the Emperor Hadrian—Opinions entertained with regard to these Oracles—Quotation from Milton 180
CHAPTER XL.
Classic Games—Why connected with Mythology—Olympic Games—By Whom instituted—Time and Manner of their celebration—Olympiads—Nature [11] of the Contests—Qualifications required of the Competitors—Prize awarded to the Victors—Honors bestowed—Horse and Chariot Races—Philip of Macedon—Alcibiades—Cynisca—Intellectual Contests—Herodotus—Dionysius—Pythian Games—By whom instituted—Time of their Celebration—Prize—Nemean Games—Crowns bestowed—Isthmian Games—Why so called—Instituted in Honor of Melicertes—Garland bestowed on the Victor 191
CHAPTER XLI.
The Greek Drama—Peculiarities of the Greek Theatre—Description of the Theatre of Bacchus at Athens—Stage Machinery—Dress of the Actors—Masks—The Chorus—Measures of the Choral Dance—Chorus of the Furies—Story of Ibycus—Attempt made to revive the Ancient Chorus—Time occupied by Theatrical Entertainments—Their cost—Comparison with the Roman Amphitheatre 197
CHAPTER XLII.
Celebrated Statues—The Olympian Jupiter—Minerva of the Parthenon—Subsequent Fate of this Temple—Apollo Belvidere—Diana à la Biche 206
PART II.
CHAPTER I.
Egyptian Divinities—Osiris—Apis and Serapis—Parentage of Osiris—His Death and Sepulture—Isis—Attributes—Emblematic representation—Rites of Isis forbidden at Rome—Condemned by Juvenal—Apis—Manner of transmigration—Festivals in Honor of Apis—Discovery of a Successor—Oracles obtained from this Divinity—Germanicus—Harpocrates—Quotation 209
CHAPTER II.
Eastern Mythology—Divinities of the Assyrians—Baal or Bel—Tower of Babel—Proper Names of the Phœnicians and Carthaginians—Worship of Baal introduced among the Israelites by Achab—Reproaches of Jeremias—Moloch—Nations devoted to his Worship—Human Sacrifices—Representation of this God—His Worship forbidden by Moses—Valley of Hinnom—Quotation from Milton—Astaroth or Astarte—Sacrifices in Honor of this Goddess—Abuses attending her Festivals—Thammuz identical with Adonis—Mourned by the Assyrian Women—Lines from Milton—Vision of Ezekiel—Oannes—Dagon 213
[12]CHAPTER III.
Persia—The Zend-avesta—Doctrines of Zoroaster—Ormuzd or Ormasdes—Ahriman—Worship of Fire—The Guebers—Perpetual Fires—Bakoo—Magic and Astrology—Parsees of Hindostan 218
CHAPTER IV.
Hindoo Mythology—Brahma—The Vedas—Doctrine of the Vedas—Brahma, Vishnu and Siva—Offices of these Deities—Avatars of Vishnu—Krishna—Siva—Doctrines regarding the Soul—Metempsychosis—Castes—Buddha—His Doctrines—Buddhism suppressed in India 222
CHAPTER V.
China—Absence of any State Religion in China—Doctrine of the Lettered—Confucius—His Writings—Honors paid him in China—Difficulties occasioned among Christian Missionaries—Lao-tze, founder of the Religion of Tao or Reason—His Writings—Chinese Buddhists—Temple of Buddha at Pou-tou—General Feeling of the Chinese with regard to Religion 229
CHAPTER VI.
Thibet—The Grand Lama—Prevailing Religion of Thibet and Tartary—Lamaseries—The Grand Lama, a Perpetual Incarnation of Buddha—His transmigrations—Mode of discovering his Successor 236
CHAPTER VII.
Mythology of Scandinavia—Compared with that of Greece and Rome—The Eddas—Account of the Creation—Form of the Earth—Asgard, Odin—Names of this Deity—Valhalla—Thor—Recovery of Thor’s Hammer—Frey and Freya—Bragi—Heimdall—Vidar—Hodur—The Valkyrior—Loki and his Progeny—Death of Baldur—His Funeral—Loki’s Punishment—The Elves—Runic Letters—Ragnarok, the Twilight of the Gods 238
CHAPTER VIII.
Celtic Mythology—Druidism—Derivation of the Word Druid—Origin of Druidical Worship—Account given by Cæsar—Characteristics—Divinities worshipped by the Druids—Esus—His Attributes—Bel—Teutates—Camul—Tarann—Priests—Their Duties—Bards—Their Influences—Druids, properly so called—Sacred Plants—Mystic Writing of the Druids—Their Political Authority—Druidesses—Of the Loire—Of the Island of Sena—Human Sacrifices offered by Druidesses—Virgins of Tara—Sacrifices offered by the Druids—Victims chosen—Belief of the Druids in a Future State—Festivals [13] of the Druids—Festival—Solstices—Beltane or Beal-Tinne—Ceremonies observed in Ireland—St. Patrick at Tara—First of November—Breton Legend—Superstitious Practices belonging to the Day—Suppression of Druidism in Gaul—In England—Mona—Iona—Druidical Monuments—Menhirs—Dolmens—Cromlechs—Stonehenge—Carnac—Popular Superstitions 257
CHAPTER IX.
Mexico—Mythology of the Aztecs—Its Peculiar Characteristics—Belief of the Aztecs with regard to the Supreme Being—Subordinate Deities—Huitzilopotchli—Legend of Quetzalcoatl—Household Divinities—Belief of the Aztecs with regard to a Future State—Singular Ceremony—Rites of Burial—Aztec Priests—Priestesses—Mexican Temples—Pyramid of Cholula—Sacrifices—Their Number—Victims offered annually to Tezcatlipoca—Cannibal Repasts—Montezuma 274
CHAPTER X.
Mythology of the Ancient Peruvians—Belief in One God—Worship of the Sun, Moon, and Stars—Legend of Manco-Capac—Pretended Origin of the Inca Race—Legend of the Deluge—Tradition of White Men from the East—Temple of the Sun in the Island of Titicaca—Temple of Cuzco—Peruvian Priesthood—Sacrifices offered to the Sun—Festivals of the Sun—Feast of Raymi—Resemblance of certain Peruvian Rites to those observed by the Ancient Romans—Virgins of the Sun—Burial Rites of the Peruvians—Cupay 284
SUPPLEMENT.
Notice of Authors, etc., mentioned in this Volume—Æschylus—Cæsar—Cicero—Demosthenes—Diodorus—Euripides—Herodotus—Justin—Juvenal—Mæcenas—Pelasgi—Plinius—Procopius—Simonides—Sophocles—Strabo—Titicaca—Varro 292

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