Myths and Legends of China
Page: 185Vowels and Diphthongs
a as in father.
ai as in Italian amái.
ao. Italian ao in Aosta: sometimes á-oo, the au in cauto.
e in eh, en, as in yet, lens.
ei. Nearly ey in grey, but more as in Italian lei, contei.
ê. The vowel-sound in lurk.
êi. The foregoing ê followed enclitically by y. Money without the n = mêi.
êrh. The urr in purr.
i. As a single or final syllable the vowel-sound in ease, tree; in ih, in, ing, as in chick, thing.
ia generally as in the Italian Maria.
iai. The iai in the Italian vecchiaia.
iao as in ia and ao, with the terminal peculiarity of the latter.
ie as in the Italian siesta.
iu as a final, longer than the English ew. In liu, niu, almost leyew, neyew. In chiung, hsiung, iung, is eeyong (ō in roll).
o. Between vowel-sound in awe and that in roll.
ou. Really êō; ou in round.
ü. The vowel-sound in the French tu, eût.
üa. Only in üan, which in some tones is üen. The ū as above; the an as in antic.
üe. The vowel-sounds in the French tu es.
üo. A disputed sound, used, if at all, interchangeably with io in certain syllables.
u. The oo in too; in un and ung as in the Italian punto.
ua. Nearly ooa, in many instances contracting to wa.
uai as in the Italian guai.
uei. The vowel-sounds in the French jouer.
uê. Only in final uên = ú-ŭn; frequently wên or wun.
ui. The vowel-sounds in screwy; in some tones uei.
uo. The Italian uo in fuori; often wo, and at times nearly ŏō.
ŭ. Between the i in bit and the u in shut.
ch as in chair; but before ih softened to dj.
ch’. A strong breathing. Much-harm without the italicized letters = ch’a.
f as in farm.
h as ch in Scotch loch.
hs. A slight aspirate preceding and modifying the sibilant, which is, however, the stronger of the two consonants; e.g. hsing = hissing without the first i,
j. Nearly the French j in jaune; the English s in fusion.
k. c in car, k in king; but when following other sounds often softened to g in go, gate.
k’. The aspirate as in ch’. Kick-hard without the italicized letters = k’a; and kick-her == k’ê.
l as in English.
m as in English.
n as in English.
ng. The italicized letters in the French mon galant = nga; mon gaillard = ngai; son gosier = ngo.
p as in English.
p’ The Irish pronunciation of party, parliament. Slap-hard without the italicized letters = p’a.
s as in English.
sh as in English.
ss. Only in ssŭ. The object of employing ss is to fix attention on the peculiar vowel-sound ŭ (see above).
t as in English.
t’ The Irish t in torment. Hit-hard without the italicized letters = t’a.
ts as in jetsam; after another word softened to ds in gladsome.
tz. Employed to mark the peculiarity of the final ŭ; hardly of greater power than ts.
tz’ like ts’. This, tz, and ss used only before ŭ.
w as in English; but very faint, or even non-existent, before ü.
y as in English; but very faint before i or ü.
The correct pronunciation of the sound (yin) is not sufficient to make a Chinese spoken word intelligible. Unless the tone (shêng), or musical note, is simultaneously correctly given, either the wrong meaning or no meaning at all will be conveyed. The tone is the key in which the voice is pitched. Accent is a ‘song added to,’ and tone is emphasized accent. The number of these tones differs in the different dialects. In Pekingese there are now four. They are best indicated in transliteration by numbers added to the sound, thus:
pa (1) pa (2) pa (3) pa (4)
To say, for example, pa (3) instead of pa (1) would be as great a mistake as to say ‘grasp’ instead of ‘trumpet.’ Correctness of tone cannot be learnt except by oral instruction.
What tone is to the individual sound rhythm is to the sentence. This also, together with proper appreciation of the mutual modifications of tone and rhythm, can be correctly acquired only by oral instruction.
A Zie. In Miao legend of the creation, 408
Absolute. Of Lieh Tzŭ, 91
Accessory Institutions, 38; education, 38
Address, Forms of, 42
Administration. General, 28 sq.; in Feudal Period, 29; in Monarchical Period, 29; in Republican Period, 30
Æsthetic Products, 59
Age for Marriage, 23
Agents. The Three, 125; the Three Great Emperor Agents, 125; the Three Supreme Agents, 125
Agnosticism. Confucius and, 89
Agriculture, 49 sq.; Ministry of, 50
Agriculturists. Nung; the second class of the people, 28
Air. Sovereign of the Eastern, 137; sovereign of the Western, 137
Akkadia. Supposed origin of the Chinese in, 17
All Souls’ Day. Festival of (Mid-autumn Festival), 45
Alligator, The Spiritual, 224
Amitabha. See Amita
An-kung. God of Sailors, 165
Ancestor-worship. The origin of Chinese religion, 52; by rulers, 94; ordinary, 100; and Buddhism, 118
Ao. A sea-monster; raises the scholar K’uei on its back, 106
Ao Ch’in. A Dragon-king; and the Eight Immortals, 214 sq.
Ao Ping. Third son of Lung Wang, 309
Aquila. Star; legend regarding Vega and, 189 sq.
Archer, The Divine, 180 sq.
Armless People. Legend of the, 388
Artisans. Kung; the third class of the people, 28
Astrological Superstitions, 176
Asuras. Buddhist demons; enemies of Dêvas, 198
August. The Pure August One; Yü Huang, 130
Barge of Mercy, Taoist, 160
Beards. Little worn, 47
Beginning. Of Form, 90; of Pneuma, 90; the Great, 90; of Substance, 90
Bell, Casting of the Great. Legend of, 394 sq.
Bezoar. See Niu Huang
Bible. Parallelisms of, with Chinese religious and mythological beliefs, 79 n.
“Biographies of the Gods.” Shên hsien chuan, by Ko Hung, 79
Bird. Of Dawn, 187; the one-legged, 206
Birth of the Soul, 93
Blackwater River, Demons of. In the Hsi yu chi, 352
Blank, The Great, 90
Blower. See Ch’ên Ch’i
Blue Dragon. Ch’ing Lung; spirit of the Blue Dragon Star; guardian of Taoist temple gates, 146 sq.
Blue River. Hsüan Chuang exposed in, as an infant, 337
“Book of Ceremonial.” Li chi, 103
“Book of History,” 84
Brothers, The Three Musical, 151
Buddha. Ju Lai, 78; and the Law and the Priesthood, 119; Tathagata, 119; Fo Pao, one of the San Pao, 119; Shâkyamuni, 119; Yüeh-shih Fo, the Master-Physician, 120; Miao Shan (Kuan Yin) becomes a, 271; his jumping competition with Sun Hou-tzŭ, 333
Buddhism. As a Chinese religion, 53; effect on mythology, 63; one of the three religions, 100; brought to China, 118; Mahayanistic form of, 118; origin in ancestor-worship, 118; and Taoism, 118; and Confucianism, 118; Buddha, the Law, and the Priesthood, 119
Buddhist-s. Account of P’an Ku, 77; guardians of temple gates, 146; evil dragons, 208; number of dragons, 209; saviour of the Buddhists in Slow-carts Country, 353 sq.
Buffalo. Of T’ung-t’ien Chiao-chu, 134
Burial, Methods of, 39 sq.
Bushel Mother. See Tou Mu
Butterfly. Chuang Tzŭ and the, 149
“Canon of Changes.” See I Ching
Capture, Marriage By, 22
Carp. Ch’ên Kuang-jui and the released, 340
Cart, Land of the Flying, 391
Cask of Pearls. Wang Tan and the, 132
Cause-s. First, Yüan-shih T’ien-tsun, 127; Superior, Medium, and Inferior, 126; the Three, 125 sq.
Celestial Ministries, 164
Cemeteries, Chinese, 41
Ch’an-yü. Daughter of Têng Chiu-kung; helps her father, 147; marries T’u Hsing-sun, 147
Chang Fei. Chang I Tê, the meat-seller; and Kuan Yü, 114 sq.
Chang Hsien. The patron of child-bearing women, 177 sq.; shoots the Heavenly Dog, 178; spirit of the star Chang, 179; origin of worship of, 178
Chang I Tê. See Chang Fei
Chang Kuei-fang. Defeated by No-cha, 154
Chang Kuo. One of the Eight Immortals, 303; legend of, 295
Chang Lao. The old priest who rescued the infant son of Ch’ên Kuang-jui, 338
Ch’ang Ô, or Hêng Ô. Called T’ai-yin Huang-chün and Yüeh-fu Ch’ang Ô; the younger sister of the Spirit of the Waters, 179 sq.; Shên I marries, 182; eats pill of immortality, 185; flies to the moon, 185; and the white rabbit, 185; changed to a toad, 188
Chang Shao. His fight with Nan-chi Hsien-wêng, 159; defeated by White Crane Youth, 159
Chang Tao-ling. The first Taiost pope, 138 sq.; finds ancient writings, 139; founder of modern Taoism, 139; and pills of immortality, 140; and talismans, 139; a ‘rice-thief,’ 139; his disciple, Wang Ch’ang, 216; Chao Shêng plucks the peaches for, 141; the Heavenly Teacher, 141; Vicegerent of Pearly Emperor, 141; Commander-in-Chief of the hosts of Taoism, 141; his descendants, 142; and the dragon, 217; and the Spirits of the Well, 217; and the hunter, 217
Chang T’ien-shih. Master of the Taoists; Emperor Li Shih-min and, 243 sq.; causes death of the five graduates, 244; gives magic objects to graduates, 245
Chang Ya. The God of Tzŭ T’ung 104 sq.
Change, The Great, 90
“Changes, The Canon of.” See