Bible Myths and their Parallels in other Religions Being a Comparison of the Old and New Testament Myths and Miracles with those of the Heathen Nations of Antiquity Considering also their Origin and Meaning
[78:1] Tylor: Early Hist. Mankind, pp. 344, 345.
[78:2] "En effet, quelques anciens disent qu' Hercule fut aussi devorà par la beleine qui gurdoit Hesione, qu'il demeura trois jours dans son ventre, et qu'il sortit chauve de ce sejour." (L'Antiquité Expliqueé, vol. i. p. 204.)
[78:3] Bouchet: Hist. d'Animal, in Anac., vol. i. p. 240.
[78:4] Anacalypsis, vol. i. p. 638. See also Tylor: Primitive Culture, vol. i. p. 306, and Chambers's Encyclo., art. "Jonah."
[79:1] Tales of Ancient Greece, p. 296.
[79:2] See Hebrew Mythology, p. 203.
[79:3] See Tylor's Early Hist. Mankind, and Primitive Culture, vol. i.
[79:4] Chambers's Encyclo., art. Jonah.
[80:1] Goldzhier: Hebrew Mythology, pp. 102, 103.
[80:2] This is seen from the following, taken from Pictet: "Du Culte des Carabi," p. 104, and quoted by Higgins: Anac., vol. i. p. 650: "Vallancy dit que Ionn étoit le même que Baal. En Gallois Jon, le Seigneur, Dieu, la cause prémière. En Basque Jawna, Jon, Jona, &c., Dieu, et , Maître. Les Scandinaves appeloient le Soleil John. . . . Une des inscriptions de Gruter montre ques les Troyens adoroient le même astre sous le nom de Jona. En Persan le Soleil est appelè Jawnah." Thus we see that the Sun was called Jonah, by different nations of antiquity.
[80:3] See Goldzhier: Hebrew Mythology, p. 148.
[80:4] See Tylor: Early History of Mankind, p. 845, and Goldzhier: Hebrew Mythology, pp. 102, 103.
[80:5] See Tylor: Early History of Mankind, p. 345.
[80:7] See Knight: Ancient Art and Mythology, pp. 88, 89, and Mallet's Northern Antiquities.
[80:8] In ancient Scandinavian mythology, the Sun is personified in the form of a beautiful maiden. (See Mallet's Northern Antiquities, p. 458.)
[80:10] Tylor: Primitive Culture, vol. i. p. 307.
"The story of Little Red Riding-Hood, as we call her, or Little Red-Cap, came from the same (i. e., the ancient Aryan) source, and refers to the Sun and the Night."
"One of the fancies of the most ancient Aryan or Hindoo stories was that there was a great dragon that was trying to devour the Sun, and to prevent him from shining upon the earth and filling it with brightness and life and beauty, and that Indra, the Sun-god, killed the dragon. Now, this is the meaning of Little Red Riding-Hood, as it is told in our nursery tales. Little Red Riding-Hood is the evening Sun, which is always described as red or golden; the old grandmother is the earth, to whom the rays of the Sun bring warmth and comfort. The wolf—which is a well-known figure for the clouds and darkness of night—is the dragon in another form. First he devours the grandmother; that is, he wraps the earth in thick clouds, which the evening Sun is not strong enough to pierce through. Then, with the darkness of night, he swallows up the evening Sun itself, and all is dark and desolate. Then, as in the German tale, the night-thunder and the storm-winds are represented by the loud snoring of the wolf; and then the huntsman, the morning Sun, comes in all his strength and majesty, and chases away the night-clouds and kills the wolf, and revives old Grandmother Earth, and brings Little Red Riding-Hood to life again." (Bunce, Fairy Tales, their Origin and Meaning, p. 161.)
[81:1] Müller's Chips, vol. ii. p. 260.
[82:1] See Goldzhier's Hebrew Mythology, p. 198, et seq.
[82:2] See Maurice: Indian Antiquities, vol. ii. p. 277.
[82:4] Hist. Hindostan, vol. i. pp. 418-419.
[82:5] See Pilchard's Egyptian Mythology, p. 190. Bible for Learners, vol. i. p. 87. Higgins: Anacalypsis, vol. i. p. 646. Cory's Ancient Fragments, p. 57.
[82:6] See Higgins: Anacalypsis, vol. i. p. 646. Smith: Chaldean Account of Genesis, p. 39, and Cory's Ancient Fragments, p. 57.
[82:7] Civilizing gods, who diffuse intelligence and instruct barbarians, are also Solar Deities. Among these Oannes takes his place, as the Sun-god, giving knowledge and civilization. (Rev. S. Baring-Gould: Curious Myths, p. 367.
[82:8] Goldzhier: Hebrew Mythology, pp. 214, 215.
[82:9] See Inman's Ancient Faiths, vol. i. p. 111.
[82:10] See Chamber's Encyclo., art "Dagon."
[83:1] See Smith's Dictionary of the Bible, and Chambers's Encyclo., art. "Dagon" in both.
[83:3] See Cox: Aryan Mythology, vol. ii. p. 26.
[83:4] Ibid. p. 38.
[83:6] Since writing the above we find that Mr. Bryant, in his "Analysis of Ancient Mythology" (vol. ii. p. 291), speaking of the mystical nature of the name John, which is the same as Jonah, says: "The prophet who was sent upon an embassy to the Ninevites, is styled Ionas: a title probably bestowed upon him as a messenger of the Deity. The great Patriarch who preached righteousness to the Antediluvians, is styled Oan and Oannes, which is the same as Jonah."
[84:1] From Maurice: Hist. Hindostan, vol. i. p. 495.
[84:2] Higgins: Anacalypsis, vol. i. p. 634. See also, Calmet's Fragments, 2d Hundred, p. 78.
[84:4] See Higgins: Anacalypsis, vol. i. p. 640.
In the words of the Rev. Dr. Giles:
"The rite of circumcision must not be passed over in any work that concerns the religion and literature of that (the Jewish) people."[85:1]
The first mention of Circumcision, in the Bible, occurs in Genesis,[85:2] where God is said to have commanded the Israelites to perform this rite, and thereby establish a covenant between him and his chosen people:
"This is my covenant (said the Lord), which ye shall keep, between me and you and thy seed after thee; every male child among you shall be circumcised."
"We need not doubt," says the Rev. Dr. Giles, "that a Divine command was given to Abraham that all his posterity should practice the rite of circumcision."[85:3]
Such may be the case. If we believe that the Lord of the Universe communes with man, we need not doubt this; yet, we are compelled to admit that nations other than the Hebrews practiced this rite. The origin of it, however, as practiced among other nations, has never been clearly ascertained. It has been maintained by some scholars that this rite drew its origin from considerations of health and cleanliness, which seems very probable, although doubted by many.[85:4] Whatever may have been its origin, it is certain that it was practiced by many of the ancient Eastern nations, who never came in contact with the Hebrews, in early times, and, therefore, could not have learned it from them.
The Egyptians practiced circumcision at a very early period,[85:5] [Pg 86]at least as early as the fourth dynasty—pyramid one—and therefore, long before the time assigned for Joseph's entry into Egypt, from whom some writers have claimed the Egyptians learned it.[86:1]
In the decorative pictures of Egyptian tombs, one frequently meets with persons on whom the denudation of the prepuce is manifested.[86:2]
On a stone found at Thebes, there is a representation of the circumcision of Ramses II. A mother is seen holding her boy's arms back, while the operator kneels in front.[86:3] All Egyptian priests were obliged to be circumcised,[86:4] and Pythagoras had to submit to it before being admitted to the Egyptian sacerdotal mysteries.[86:5]
Herodotus, the Greek historian, says:
"As this practice can be traced both in Egypt and Ethiopia, to the remotest antiquity, it is not possible to say which first introduced it. The Phenicians and Syrians of Palestine acknowledge that they borrowed it from Egypt."[86:6]
It has been recognized among the Kaffirs and other tribes of Africa.[86:7] It was practiced among the Fijians and Samoans of Polynesia, and some races of Australia.[86:8] The Suzees and the Mandingoes circumcise their women.[86:9] The Assyrians, Colchins, Phenicians, and others, practiced it.[86:10] It has been from time immemorial a custom among the Abyssinians, though, at the present time, Christians.[86:11]
The antiquity of the custom may be assured from the fact of the New Hollanders, (never known to civilized nations until a few years ago) having practiced it.[86:12]
The Troglodytes on the shore of the Red Sea, the Idumeans, Ammonites, Moabites and Ishmaelites, had the practice of circumcision.[86:11]
The ancient Mexicans also practiced this rite.[86:13] It was also [Pg 87]found among the Amazon tribes of South America.[87:1] These Indians, as well as some African tribes, were in the habit of circumcising their women. Among the Campas, the women circumcised themselves, and a man would not marry a woman who was not circumcised.[87:2] They performed this singular rite upon arriving at the age of puberty.[87:3]
Jesus of Nazareth was circumcised,[87:4] and had he been really the founder of the Christian religion, so-called, it would certainly be incumbent on all Christians to be circumcised as he was, and to observe that Jewish law which he observed, and which he was so far from abrogating, that he declared: "heaven and earth shall pass away" ere "one jot or one tittle" of that law should be dispensed with.[87:5] But the Christians are not followers of the religion of Jesus.[87:6] They are followers of the religion of the Pagans. This, we believe, we shall be able to show in Part Second of this work.
[85:1] Giles: Hebrew and Christian Records, vol. i. p. 249.
[85:2] Genesis, xvii. 10.
[85:3] Giles: Hebrew and Christian Records, vol. i. p. 251.
[85:4] Mr. Herbert Spencer shows (Principles of Sociology, pp. 290, 295) that the sacrificing of a part of the body as a religious offering to their deity, was, and is a common practice among savage tribes. Circumcision may have originated in this way. And Mr. Wake, speaking of it, says: "The origin of this custom has not yet, so far as I am aware, been satisfactorily explained. The idea that, under certain climatic conditions, circumcision is necessary for cleanliness and comfort, does not appear to be well founded, as the custom is not universal even within the tropics." (Phallism in Ancient Religs., p. 36.)
[85:5] "Other men leave their private parts as they are formed by nature, except those who have learned otherwise from them; but the Egyptians are circumcised. . . . They are circumcised for the sake of cleanliness, thinking it better to be clean than handsome." (Herodotus, Book ii. ch. 36.)
[86:1] We have it also on the authority of Sir J. G. Wilkinson, that: "this custom was established long before the arrival of Joseph in Egypt," and that "this is proved by the ancient monuments."
[86:2] Bonwick: Egyptian Belief, pp. 414, 415.
[86:3] Ibid. p. 415.
[86:4] Ibid. and Knight: Ancient Art and Mythology, p. 89.
[86:5] Bonwick's Egyptian Belief, p. 415.
[86:6] Herodotus: Book ii. ch. 36.
[86:7] See Bonwick's Egyptian Belief, p. 114. Amberly: Analysis Religious Belief, p. 67, and Higgins: Anacalypsis, vol. ii. p. 309.
[86:8] Bonwick's Egyptian Belief, p. 414, and Amberly's Analysis, pp. 63, 73.
[86:9] Amberly: Analysis of Relig. Belief, p. 73.
[86:10] Bonwick: Egyptian Belief, p. 414: Amberly's Analysis, p. 63; Prog. Relig. Ideas, vol. i. p. 163, and Inman: Ancient Faiths, vol. ii. pp. 18, 19.
[86:11] Bonwick: Egyptian Belief, p. 414.
[86:12] Kendrick's Egypt, quoted by Dunlap; Mysteries of Adoni, p. 146.
[86:13] Amberly's Analysis, p. 63, Higgins: Anacalypsis, vol. ii. p. 309, and Acosta, ii. 369.
[87:2] This was done by cutting off the clytoris.