Bible Myths and their Parallels in other Religions Being a Comparison of the Old and New Testament Myths and Miracles with those of the Heathen Nations of Antiquity Considering also their Origin and Meaning
[19:1] See "The Deluge in the Light of Modern Science," by Prof. Wm. Denton: J. P. Mendum, Boston.
[19:2] "There were giants in the earth in those days." It is a scientific fact that most races of men, in former ages, instead of being larger, were smaller than at the present time. There is hardly a suit of armor in the Tower of London, or in the old castles, that is large enough for the average Englishman of to-day to put on. Man has grown in stature as well as intellect, and there is no proof whatever—in fact, the opposite is certain—that there ever was a race of what might properly be called giants, inhabiting the earth. Fossil remains of large animals having been found by primitive man, and a legend invented to account for them, it would naturally be that: "There were giants in the earth in those days." As an illustration we may mention the story, recorded by the traveller James Orton, we believe (in "The Andes and the Amazon"), that, near Punin, in South America, was found the remains of an extinct species of the horse, the mastodon, and other large animals. This discovery was made, owing to the assurance of the natives that giants at one time had lived in that country, and that they had seen their remains at this certain place. Many legends have had a similar origin. But the originals of all the Ogres and Giants to be found in the mythology of almost all nations of antiquity, are the famous Hindoo demons, the Rakshasas of our Aryan ancestors. The Rakshasas were very terrible creatures indeed, and in the minds of many people, in India, are so still. Their natural form, so the stories say, is that of huge, unshapely giants, like clouds, with hair and beard of the color of the red lightning. This description explains their origin. They are the dark, wicked and cruel clouds, personified.
[19:3] "And it repented the Lord that he had made man." (Gen. iv.) "God is not a man that he should lie, neither the son of man that he should repent." (Numb. xxiii. 19.)
[20:1] Gen. iv.
[20:2] Gen. vi. 1-3.
[20:4] The image of Osiris of Egypt was by the priests shut up in a sacred ark on the 17th of Athyr (Nov. 13th), the very day and month on which Noah is said to have entered his ark, (See Bonwick's Egyptian Belief, p. 165, and Bunsen's Angel Messiah, p. 22.)
[21:1] Gen. vi.
[21:2] Gen. viii.
[22:2] Josephus, the Jewish historian, speaking of the flood of Noah (Antiq. bk. 1, ch. iii.), says: "All the writers of the Babylonian histories make mention of this flood and this ark."
[22:3] Quoted by George Smith: Chaldean Account of Genesis, pp. 43-44; see also, The Pentateuch Examined, vol. iv. p. 211; Dunlap's Spirit Hist. p. 138; Cory's Ancient Fragments, p. 61, et seq. for similar accounts.
[23:1] Chaldean Account of Genesis, pp. 285, 286.
[23:2] Volney: New Researches, p. 119; Chaldean Acct. of Genesis, p. 290; Hist. Hindostan, vol. i. p. 417, and Dunlap's Spirit Hist. p. 277.
[23:4] Legends of the Patriarchs, pp. 109, 110.
[23:5] Gen. vi. 8.
[23:6] The Hindoo ark-preserved Menu had three sons; Sama, Cama, and Pra-Japati. (Faber: Orig. Pagan Idol.) The Bhattias, who live between Delli and the Panjab, insist that they are descended from a certain king called Salivahana, who had three sons, Bhat, Maha and Thamaz (Col. Wilford, in vol. ix. Asiatic Researches.) The Iranian hero Thraetona had three sons. The Iranian Sethite Lamech had three sons, and Hellen, the son of Deucalion, during whose time the flood is said to have happened, had three sons. (Bunsen: The Angel-Messiah, pp. 70, 71.) All the ancient nations of Europe also describe their origin from the three sons of some king or patriarch. The Germans said that Mannus (son of the god Tuisco) had three sons, who were the original ancestors of the three principal nations of Germany. The Scythians said that Targytagus, the founder of their nation, had three sons, from whom they were descended. A tradition among the Romans was that the Cyclop Polyphemus had by Galatea three sons. Saturn had three sons, Jupiter, Neptune, and Pluto; and Hesiod speaks of the three sons which sprung from the marriage of heaven and earth. (See Mallet's Northern Antiquities, p. 509.)
[23:8] "It is of no slight moment that the Egyptians, with whom the Hebrews are represented as in earliest and closest intercourse, had no traditions of a flood, while the Babylonian and Hellenic tales bear a strong resemblance in many points to the narrative in Genesis." (Rev. George W. Cox: Tales of Ancient Greece, p. 340. See also Owen: Man's Earliest History, p. 28, and ch. xi. this work.)
[24:1] See Taylor's Diegesis, p. 198, and Knight's Ancient Art and Mythology, p. 107. "Plato was told that Egypt had hymns dating back ten thousand years before his time." (Bonwick: Egyptian Belief, p. 185.) Plato lived 429 B. C. Herodotus relates that the priests of Egypt informed him that from the first king to the present priest of Vulcan who last reigned, were three hundred forty and one generations of men, and during these generations there were the same number of chief priests and kings. "Now (says he) three hundred generations are equal to ten thousand years, for three generations of men are one hundred years; and the forty-one remaining generations that were over the three hundred, make one thousand three hundred and forty years," making eleven thousand three hundred and forty years. "Conducting me into the interior of an edifice that was spacious, and showing me wooden colossuses to the number I have mentioned, they reckoned them up; for every high priest places an image of himself there during his life-time; the priests, therefore, reckoning them and showing them to me, pointed out that each was the son of his own father; going through them all, from the image of him who died last until they had pointed them all out." (Herodotus, book ii. chs. 142, 143.) The discovery of mummies of royal and priestly personages, made at Deir-el-Bahari (Aug., 1881), near Thebes, in Egypt, would seem to confirm this statement made by Herodotus. Of the thirty-nine mummies discovered, one—that of King Raskenen—is about three thousand seven hundred years old. (See a Cairo [Aug. 8th,] Letter to the London Times.)
[24:2] Owen: Man's Earliest History, p. 28.
[24:3] Bonwick: Egyptian Belief, p. 185.
[24:4] Ibid. p. 411.
[24:5] Owen: Man's Earliest History, pp. 27, 28.
[24:6] Goldzhier: Hebrew Mytho. p. 319.
[24:7] Ibid. p. 320.
[25:1] Translated from the Bhagavat by Sir Wm. Jones, and published in the first volume of the "Asiatic Researches," p. 230, et seq. See also Maurice: Ind. Ant. ii. 277, et seq., and Prof. Max Müller's Hist. Ancient Sanskrit Literature, p. 425, et seq.
[25:2] See Prog. Relig. Ideas, vol. i. p. 55.
[25:3] See Thornton's Hist. China, vol. i. p. 30, Prog. Relig. Ideas, vol. i. p. 205, and Priestley, p. 41.
[25:4] Priestley, p. 42.
[26:1] Bunce: Fairy Tales, Origin and Meaning, p. 18.
[26:2] The oldest Greek mythology, however, has no such idea; it cannot be proved to have been known to the Greeks earlier than the 6th century B. C. (See Goldzhier: Hebrew Mytho., p. 319.) This could not have been the case had there ever been a universal deluge.
[26:3] Tales of Ancient Greece, pp. 72-74. "Apollodorus—a Grecian mythologist, born 140 B. C.,—having mentioned Deucalion consigned to the ark, takes notice, upon his quitting it, of his offering up an immediate sacrifice to God." (Chambers' Encyclo., art, Deluge.)
[27:3] See Mallet's Northern Antiquities, p. 99.
[27:4] Mex. Antiq. vol. viii.
[27:6] See Squire: Serpent Symbol, pp. 189, 190.
[28:1] Count de Volney says: "The Deluge mentioned by Jews, Chaldeans, Greeks and Indians, as having destroyed the world, are one and the same physico-astronomical event which is still repeated every year," and that "all those personages that figure in the Deluge of Noah and , are still in the celestial sphere. It was a real picture of the calendar." (Researches in Ancient Hist., p. 124.) It was on the same day that Noah is said to have shut himself up in the ark, that the priests of Egypt shut up in their sacred coffer or ark the image of Osiris, a personification of the Sun. This was on the 17th of the month Athor, in which the Sun enters the Scorpion. (See Kenrick's Egypt, vol. i. p. 410.) The history of Noah also corresponds, in some respects, with that of Bacchus, another personification of the Sun.
[28:2] See Maurice's Indian Antiquities, vol. ii. p. 268.
[29:1] "In America, along with the bones of the Mastodon imbedded in the alluvium of the Bourbense, were found arrow heads and other traces of the savages who had killed this member of an order no longer represented in that part of the world." (Herbert Spencer: Principles of Sociology, vol. i. p. 17.)
[29:2] Darwin: Descent of Man, p. 156. We think it may not be out of place to insert here what might properly be called: "The Drama of Life," which is as follows:
|Act i.||Azoic: Conflict of Inorganic Forces.|
|Act ii.||Paleozoic: Age of Invertebrates.|
|Scene i. Eozoic: Enter Protozoans and Protophytes.
Scene ii. Silurian: Enter the Army of Invertebrates.
Scene iii. Devonian: Enter Fishes.
Scene iv. Carboniferous: (Age of Coal Plants) Enter First Air breathers.
|Act iii.||Mesozoic: Enter Reptiles.|
|Scene i. Triassic: Enter Batrachians.
Scene ii. Jurassic: Enter huge Reptiles of Sea, Land and Air.
Scene iii. Cretaceous: (Age of Chalk) Enter Ammonites.
|Act iv.||Cenozoic: (Age of Mammals.)|
|Scene i. Eocene: Enter Marine Mammals, and probably Man.
Scene ii. Miocene: Enter Hoofed Quadrupeds.
Scene iii. Pliocene: Enter Proboscidians and Edentates.
|Act v.||Post Tertiary: Positive Age of Man.|
|Scene i. Glacial: Ice and Drift Periods.
Scene ii. Champlain: Sinking Continents; Warmer; Tropical Animals go North.
Scene iii. Terrace: Rising Continents; Colder.
Scene iv. Present: Enter Science, Iconoclasts, &c., &c.
[29:3] Draper: Religion and Science, p. 199.
[29:4] Ibid. pp. 195, 196.
[30:1] Huxley: Man's Place in Nature, p. 184.
[30:2] Paschel: Races of Man, p. 36.
[30:3] Tylor: Early History of Mankind, p. 328.
[30:4] Ibid. pp. 329, 330
[30:5] We know that many legends have originated in this way. For example, Dr. Robinson, in his "Travels in Palestine" (ii. 586), mentions a tradition that a city had once stood in a desert between Petra and Hebron, the people of which had perished for their vices, and been converted into stone. Mr. Seetzen, who went to the spot, found no traces of ruins, but a number of stony concretions, resembling in form and size the human head. They had been ignorantly supposed to be petrified heads, and a legend framed to account for their owners suffering so terrible a fate. Another illustration is as follows:—The Kamchadals believe that volcanic mountains are the abode of devils, who, after they have cooked their meals, fling the fire-brands out of the chimney. Being asked what these devils eat, they said "whales." Here we see, first, a story invented to account for the volcanic eruptions from the mountains; and, second, a story invented to account for the remains of whales found on the mountains. The savages knew that this was true, "because their old people had said so, and believed it themselves." (Related by Mr. Tylor, in his "Early History of Mankind," p. 326.)
[31:1] "Everything of importance was calculated by, and fitted into, this number (SEVEN) by the Aryan philosophers,—ideas as well as localities." (Isis Unveiled, vol. ii. p. 407).
[31:2] Each one being consecrated to a planet. First, to Saturn; second, to Jupiter; third, to Mars; fourth, to the Sun; fifth, to Venus; sixth, to Mercury; seventh, to the Moon. (The Pentateuch Examined, vol. iv. p. 269. See also The Angel Messiah, p. 106.)
[31:3] Each of which had the name of a planet.
[31:4] On each of which the name of a planet was engraved.
[31:5] "There was to be seen in Laconia, seven columns erected in honor of the