Bible Myths and their Parallels in other Religions Being a Comparison of the Old and New Testament Myths and Miracles with those of the Heathen Nations of Antiquity Considering also their Origin and Meaning
Page: 139[233:1] We say "is made to teach it," for the probability is that Paul never wrote this passage. The authority of both the Letters to the Thessalonians, attributed to Paul, is undoubtedly spurious. (See The Bible of To-Day, pp. 211, 212.)
[233:2] I. Thessalonians, iv. 14-17.
[233:3] Ibid. v. 22, 23.
[233:4] We say "James," but, it is probable that we have, in this epistle of James, another pseudonymous writing which appeared after the time that James must have lived. (See The Bible of To-Day, p. 225.)
[233:5] James, v. 7, 8.
[233:6] I. Peter, iv. 7.
[233:7] I. Peter, v. 7. This Epistle is not authentic. (See The Bible of To-Day, pp. 226, 227, 228.)
[234:1] I. John, ii. 26. This epistle is not authentic. (See Ibid. p. 231.)
[234:2] I. John, v. 2.
[234:3] Acts, i. 10, 11.
[234:4] Rev. xxii. 20.
[234:5] Matt. xvi. 27, 28.
[234:6] Ibid. xxiv. 3.
[234:7] Ibid. xxiv. 34-36.
[235:1] Towards the close of the second century. (See Bible of To-Day.)
[235:2] II. Peter, iii. 4.
[235:3] II. Peter, iii. 8-10.
[235:4] See Middleton's Works, vol. i. p. 188.
[236:1] Chapters xx. and xxi. in particular.
[236:2] The Christian Saviour, as well as the Hindoo Saviour, will appear "in the latter days" among mortals "in the form of an armed warrior, riding a white horse." St. John sees this in his vision, and prophecies it in his "Revelation" thus: "And I saw, and behold a white horse: and he that sat on him had a bow; and a crown was given unto him: and he went forth conquering, and to conquer." (Rev. vi. 2.)
[237:1] Prog. Relig. Ideas, vol. i. p. 75. Hist. Hindostan, vol. ii. pp. 497-503. See also, Williams: Hinduism, p. 108.
[237:2] Prog. Relig. Ideas, i. 247, and Bunsen's Angel-Messiah, p. 48.
[237:3] See Prog. Relig. Ideas, vol. i. p. 209.
[237:5] Pp. 122, 123.
[237:6] "And I saw the dead, small and great, stand before God." (Rev. xx. 12.)
[237:7] "And the sea gave up the dead which were in it." (Rev. xx. 13.)
[237:8] "And ye shall hear of wars, and rumors of wars." "Nation shall rise against nation, and kingdom against kingdom, and there shall be famines, pestilences, and earthquakes in divers places." (Matt. xxiv. 6, 7.)
[238:1] "And before him shall be gathered all nations: and he shall separate them one from another, as a shepherd divideth his sheep from the goats." (Matt. xxv. 32, 33.)
[238:2] "He descended into hell, the third day he rose (again) from the dead." (Apostles' Creed.)
[238:3] Purgatory—a place in which souls are supposed by the papists to be purged by fire from carnal impurities, before they are received into heaven.
[238:4] "And he laid hold on the dragon, that old serpent, which is the Devil, and Satan, and bound him a thousand years." (Rev. xx. 2.)
[238:5] "And death and hell were cast into the lake of fire." (Rev. xx. 14.)
[238:6] "And I saw a new heaven and a new earth; for the first earth, and the first heaven were passed away." (Rev. xxi. 1.)
[238:7] "And God shall wipe away all tears from their eyes; and there shall be no more death, neither sorrow, nor crying, neither shall there be any more pain: for the former things are passed away." (Rev. xxi. 1.)
[238:8] "And after these things I heard a great voice of much people in heaven, saying, 'Alleluia; salvation, and glory, and honor, and power, unto the Lord, our God.'" (Rev. xix. 1.) "For the Lord God omnipotent reigneth." (Rev. xix. 6.)
[238:9] Dupuis: Orig. Relig. Belief.
[238:10] Baring-Gould: Orig. Relig. Belief, vol. i. p. 407.
[239:1] Baring-Gould: Orig. Relig. Belief, vol. i. p. 407.
[239:2] See Mallet's Northern Antiquities.
[239:3] Humboldt: Amer. Res., vol. i. p. 91.
[239:4] Prescott: Con. of Mexico, vol. i. p. 60.
[239:5] Fergusson: Tree and Serpent Worship, p. 87. Squire: Serpent Symbol, p. 187.
[239:6] Acosta: Hist. Indies, vol. ii. p. 513.
[240:1] Over all the Higher Asia there seems to have been diffused an immemorial tradition relative to a second grand convulsion of nature, and the final dissolution of the earth by the terrible agency of FIRE, as the first is said to have been by that of WATER. It was taught by the Hindoos, the Egyptians, Plato, Pythagoras, Zoroaster, the Stoics, and others, and was afterwards adopted by the Christians. (II. Peter, iii. 9. Hist. Hindostan, vol. ii. pp. 498-500.)
[240:2] "And God made, in six days, the works of his hands, . . . the meaning of it is this; that in six thousand years the Lord will bring all things to an end." (Barnabas. Apoc. c. xiii.)
[241:1] After the devotees and followers of the new gospel had in vain expected the Holy One who was to come, they at last pitched upon St. Francis as having been the expected one, and, of course, the most surprising and absurd miracles were said to have been performed by him. Some of the fanatics who believed in this man, maintained that St. Francis was "wholly and entirely transformed into the person of Christ"—Totum Christo configuratum. Some of them maintained that the gospel of Joachim was expressly preferred to the gospel of Christ. (Mosheim: Hist. Cent., xiii. pt. ii. sects. xxxiv. and xxxvi. Anacalypsis, vol. i. p. 695.)
[242:1] Chiliasm—the thousand years when Satan is bound.
CHRIST JESUS AS JUDGE OF THE DEAD.
According to Christian dogma, "God the Father" is not to be the judge at the last day, but this very important office is to be held by "God the Son." This is taught by the writer of "The Gospel according to St. John"—whoever he may have been—when he says:
"For the Father judgeth no man, but hath committed all judgment unto the Son."[244:1]
Paul also, in his "Epistle to the Romans" (or some other person who has interpolated the passage), tells us that:
"In the day when God shall judge the secrets of men," this judgment shall be done "by Jesus Christ," his son.[244:2]
Again, in his "Epistle to Timothy,"[244:3] he says:
"The Lord Jesus Christ shall judge the quick and the dead, at his appearing and his kingdom."[244:4]
The writer of the "Gospel according to St. Matthew," also describes Christ Jesus as judge at the last day.[244:5]
Now, the question arises, is this doctrine original with Christianity? To this we must answer no. It was taught, for ages before the time of Christ Jesus or Christianity, that the Supreme Being—whether "Brahmá," "Zeruâné Akeréné," "Jupiter," or "Yahweh,"[244:6]—was not to be the judge at the last day, but that their sons were to hold this position.
The sectarians of Buddha taught that he (who was the Son of God (Brahmá) and the Holy Virgin Maya), is to be the judge of the dead.[244:7]
According to the religion of the Hindoos, Crishna (who was the Son of God, and the Holy Virgin Devaki), is to be the judge at the last day.[245:1] And Yama is the god of the departed spirits, and the judge of the dead, according to the Vedas.[245:2]
Osiris, the Egyptian "Saviour" and son of the "Immaculate Virgin" Neith or Nout, was believed by the ancient Egyptians to be the judge of the dead.[245:3] He is represented on Egyptian monuments, seated on his throne of judgment, bearing a staff, and carrying the crux ansata, or cross with a handle.[245:4] St. Andrew's cross is upon his breast. His throne is in checkers, to denote the good and evil over which he presides, or to indicate the good and evil who appear before him as the judge[245:5]
Among the many hieroglyphic titles which accompany his figure in these sculptures, and in many other places on the walls of temples and tombs, are "Lord of Life," "The Eternal Ruler," "Manifester of Good," "Revealer of Truth," "Full of Goodness and Truth," &c.[245:6]
Mr. Bonwick, speaking of the Egyptian belief in the last judgment, says:
"A perusal of the twenty-fifth chapter of Matthew will prepare the reader for the investigation of the Egyptian notion of the last judgment."[245:7]
Prof. Carpenter, referring to the Egyptian Bible—which is by far the most ancient of all holy books[245:8]—says:
"In the 'Book of the Dead,' there are used the very phrases we find in the New Testament, in connection with the day of judgment."[245:9]
According to the religion of the Persians, it is Ormuzd, "The First Born of the Eternal One," who is judge of the dead. He had the title of "The All-Seeing," and "The Just Judge."[245:10]
Zeruâné Akeréné is the name of him who corresponds to "God the Father" among other nations. He was the "One Supreme essence," the "Invisible and Incomprehensible."[245:11]
The Christian Emperor Constantine, in his oration to the clergy, speaking of the ancient poets of Greece, says:
"They affirm that men who are the sons of the gods, do judge departed souls."[246:1]
Strange as it may seem, "there are no examples of Christ Jesus conceived as judge, or the last judgment, in the early art of Christianity."[246:2]
The author from whom we quote the above, says, "It would be difficult to define the cause of this, though many may be conjectured."[246:3]
Would it be unreasonable to "conjecture" that the early Christians did not teach this doctrine, but that it was imbibed, in after years, with many other heathen ideas?
[244:1] John, v. 22.
[244:2] Romans, ii. 16.
[244:3] Not authentic. (See The Bible of To-Day, p. 212.)
[244:4] II. Timothy, iv. 1.
[244:5] Matt. xxv. 31-46.
[244:6] Through an error we pronounce this name Jehovah.
[244:7] See Dupuis: Origin of Religious Belief, p. 366.
[245:1] See Samuel Johnson's Oriental Religions, p. 504.
[245:2] See Williams' Hinduism, p. 25.
[245:3] See Bonwick's Egyptian Belief, p. 120. Renouf: Religions of the Ancient Egyptians, p. 110, and Prog. Relig. Ideas, vol. i. p. 152.
[245:4] See Bonwick's Egyptian Belief, p. 151, and Prog. Relig. Ideas, vol. i. p. 152.
[245:5] See Bonwick's Egyptian Belief, p. 151.
[245:6] See Prog. Relig. Ideas, vol. i. p. 154.
[245:7] Egyptian Belief, p. 419.
[245:8] See Ibid. p. 185.
[245:9] Quoted in Ibid. p. 419.
[245:10] Prog. Relig. Ideas, vol. i. p. 259.
[245:11] Ibid. p. 258.
[245:12] See Bell's Pantheon, vol. ii. p. 16.
[246:1] Constantine's Oration to the Clergy, ch. x.
[246:2] Jameson: History of Our Lord in Art, vol. ii. p. 392.
CHRIST JESUS AS CREATOR, AND ALPHA AND OMEGA.
Christian dogma also teaches that it was not "God the Father," but "God the Son" who created the heavens, the earth, and all that therein is.
The writer of the fourth Gospel says:
"All things were made by him, and without him was not anything made that was made."[247:1]
"He was in the world and the world was made by him, and the world knew him not."[247:2]
In the "Epistle to the Colossians," we read that:
"By him were all things created that are in heaven and that are in earth, visible and invisible, whether they be thrones, or dominions, or principalities, or powers; all things were created by him.[247:3]
Again, in the "Epistle to the Hebrews," we are told that:
"God hath spoken unto us by his son, whom he hath appointed heir of all things, by whom also he made the world."[247:4]
Samuel Johnson, D. O. Allen,[247:5] and Thomas Maurice,[247:6] tell us that, according to the religion of the Hindoos, it is Crishna, the Son, and the second person in the ever blessed Trinity,[247:7] "who is the origin and end of all the worlds; all this universe, came into being through him, the eternal maker."[247:8]
In the holy book of the Hindoos, called the "Bhagvat Geeta," may be found the following words of Crishna, addressed to his "beloved disciple" Ar-jouan:
"I am the Lord of all created beings."[247:9] "Mankind was created by me of four kinds, distinct in their principles and in their duties; know me then to be the Creator of mankind, uncreated, and without decay."[247:10]
In Lecture VII., entitled: "Of the Principles of Nature, and the Vital Spirit," he also says:
"I am the creation and the dissolution of the whole universe. There is not anything greater than I, and all things hang on me."
Again, in Lecture IX., entitled, "Of the Chief of Secrets and Prince of Science," Crishna says:
"The whole world was spread abroad by me in my invisible form. All things are dependent on me." "I am the Father and the Mother of this world, the Grandsire and the Preserver. I am the Holy One worthy to be known; the mystic figure OM.[248:1] . . . I am the journey of the good; the Comforter; the Creator; the Witness; the Resting-place; the Asylum and the Friend."[248:2]
In Lecture X., entitled, "Of the diversity of the Divine Nature," he says:
"I am the Creator of all things, and all things proceed from me. Those who are endued with spiritual wisdom, believe this and worship me; their very hearts and minds are in me; they rejoice amongst themselves, and delight in speaking of my name, and teaching one another my doctrine."[248:3]
Innumerable texts, similar to these, might be produced from the Hindoo Scriptures, but these we deem sufficient to show, in the words of Samuel Johnson quoted above, that, "According to the religion of the Hindoos, it is Crishna who is the origin and the end of all the worlds;" and that "all this universe came into being through him, the Eternal Maker." The Chinese believed in One Supreme God, to whose honor they burnt incense, but of whom they had no image. This "God the Father" was not the Creator, according to their theology or mythology; but they had another god, of whom they had statues or idols, called Natigai, who was the god of all terrestrial things; in fact, God, the Creator of this world—inferior or subordinate to the Supreme Being—from whom they petition for fine weather, or whatever else they want—a sort of mediator.[248:4]
Lanthu, who was born of a "pure, spotless virgin," is believed by his followers or disciples to be the Creator of all things;[248:5] and Taou, a deified hero, who is mentioned about 560 B. C., is believed by some sects and affirmed by their books, to be "the original source and first productive cause of all things."[248:6]
In the Chaldean oracles, the doctrine of the "Only Begotten Son," I A O, as Creator, is plainly taught.
According to ancient Persian mythology, there is one supreme essence, invisible and incomprehensible, named "Zeruâné Akeréné" which signifies "unlimited time," or "the eternal." From him emanated Ormuzd, the "King of Light," the "First-born of the Eternal One," &c. Now, this "First-born of the Eternal One" is he by whom all things were made, all things came into being through him; he is the Creator.[249:1]
A large portion of the Zend-Avesta—the Persian Sacred Book or Bible—is filled with prayers to Ormuzd, God's First-Born. The following are samples:
"I address my prayer to Ormuzd, Creator of all things; who always has been, who is, and who will be forever; who is wise and powerful; who made the great arch of heaven, the sun, the moon, stars, winds, clouds, waters, earth, fire, trees, animals and men, whom Zoroaster adored. Zoroaster, who brought to the world knowledge of the law, who knew by natural intelligence, and by the ear, what ought to be done, all that has been, all that is, and all that will be; the science of sciences, the excellent word, by which souls pass the luminous and radiant bridge, separate themselves from the evil regions, and go to light and holy dwellings, full of fragrance. O Creator, I obey thy laws, I think, act, speak, according to thy orders. I separate myself from all sin. I do good works according to my power. I adore thee with purity of thought, word, and action. I pray to Ormuzd, who recompenses good works, who delivers unto the end all those who obey his laws. Grant that I may arrive at paradise, where all is fragrance, light, and happiness."[249:2]
According to the religion of the ancient Assyrians, it was Narduk, the Logos, the WORD, "the eldest son of Hea," "the Merciful One," "the Life-giver," &c., who created the heavens, the earth, and all that therein is.[249:3]
The writer of "The Gospel according to St. John," has made Christ Jesus co-eternal with God, as well as Creator, in these words:
"In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God." "The same was in the beginning with God."[249:6]
Again, in praying to his Father, he makes Jesus say:
"And now, O Father, glorify thou me with thine own self with the glory which I had with thee before the world was."[249:7]
Paul is made to say:
"And he (Christ) is before all things."[250:1]
"Jesus Christ, the same yesterday, to-day, and forever."[250:2]