Bible Myths and their Parallels in other Religions Being a Comparison of the Old and New Testament Myths and Miracles with those of the Heathen Nations of Antiquity Considering also their Origin and Meaning
[194:9] See Dunlap's Spirit Hist., pp. 237, 241, 242, and Mysteries of Adoni, p. 123, note.
[194:10] See Higgins: Anacalypsis, vol. ii. p. 99.
[194:11] See Dunlap's Son of the Man, p. 20.
"According to the most ancient tradition of the East-Iranians recorded in the Zend-Avesta, the God of Light (Ormuzd) communicated his mysteries to some men through his Word." (Bunsen's Angel-Messiah, p. 75.)
[194:12] Wake: Phallism, &c., p. 47.
[195:1] Prog. Relig. Ideas, vol. i. pp. 258, 259.
[195:2] : Hist. Persia, vol. i. Ap. p. 494; Nimrod, vol. ii. p. 31. Anacalypsis, vol. i. p. 649.
[195:3] Col. i. 26.
[195:4] See Bonwick: Egyptian Belief, p. 102.
[195:5] See Dunlap's Son of the Man, p. 89, marginal note.
[195:6] "In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God." (John, i. 1.)
[195:7] See Bell's Pantheon, vol. ii. 69 and 71.
[195:8] Inman: Ancient Faiths, vol. ii. p. 652.
[195:9] Ibid. vol. i. p. 537.
[195:10] See Bunsen's Angel-Messiah, p. 119. Knight's Ancient Art and Mythology, pp. xxii. and 98. Dunlap's Son of the Man, p. 71, and Spirit History, pp. 183, 205, 206, 249. Bible for Learners, vol. ii. p. 25. Isis Unveiled, vol. ii. pp. 195, 237, 516, besides the authorities already cited.
[196:1] See Bunsen's Bible Chronology, p. 5. Keys of St. Peter, 135. Volney's Ruins, p. 168.
[196:2] Giles: Hebrew and Christian Records, p. 64, vol. ii.
[196:3] Ibid. p. 86, and Taylor's Diegesis, pp. 202, 206, 407. Dupuis: p. 267.
[196:4] Eusebius: Eccl. Hist., lib. 1, ch. iv.
[196:5] See Dunlap's Son of the Man, p. 78.
[196:6] See Ibid. p. 39.
[196:7] Luke, iv. 21.
[196:8] Psalm, cv. 15. The term "an Anointed One," which we use in English, is Christos in Greek, and Messiah in Hebrew. (See Bible for Learners, and Religion of Israel, p. 147.)
[196:9] Matthew, xxiv. 24.
[196:10] Acts, vii. 45; Hebrews, iv. 8; compare Nehemiah, viii. 17.
[197:1] He who, it is said, was liberated at the time of the crucifixion of Jesus of Nazareth.
[197:2] See Bible for Learners, vol. iii. p. 60.
[197:3] Octavius, c. xxix.
[197:4] See Anacalypsis, vol. ii. p. 116.
[198:1] In his History of the Campaigns of Alexander.
[198:2] See Anacalypsis, vol. ii. p. 118.
[198:4] Apol. c. 16; Ad Nationes, c. xii.
[199:1] Ganesa is the Indian God of Wisdom. (See Asiatic Researches, vol. i.)
[199:2] The Ring and circle was an emblem of god, or eternity, among the Hindoos. (See Lundy: Monumental Christianity, p. 87.)
[199:3] The Cobra, or hooded snake, is a native of the East Indies, where it is held as sacred. (See Knight: Anct. Art and Mytho., p. 16, and Fergusson's Tree and Serpent Worship.
[199:4] Linga denotes, in the sectarian worship of the Hindoos, the Phallus, an emblem of the male or generative power of nature.
[199:5] Iona, or Yoni, is the counterpart of Linga, i. e., an emblem of the female generative power. We have seen that these were attached to the effigies of the Hindoo crucified Saviour, Crishna.
[199:6] Anacalypsis, vol. ii. p. 130.
[199:7] See Lundy: Monumental Christianity, pp. 253, 254, 255.
[199:8] See Kingsborough: Mexican Antiquities, vol. vi. pp. 165 and 179.
[200:1] See Kingsborough: Mexican Antiquities, vol. vi. p. 166.
[200:2] Ibid. p. 162.
[200:3] Ibid. p. 161.
[200:4] Ibid. p. 167.
[200:5] Ibid. p. 167.
[200:6] Ibid. p. 166.
[200:8] See, also, Monumental Christianity, p. 393.
"Once a year the ancient Mexicans made an image of one of their gods, which was pierced by an arrow, shot by a priest of Quetzalcoatle." (Dunlap's Spirit Hist., 207.)
[201:1] Monumental Christianity, p. 393.
[201:3] See Monumental Christianity, p. 390, and Mexican Antiquities, vol. vi. p. 169.
[201:4] Quoted by Lord Kingsborough: Mexican Antiquities, vol. vi. p. 172.
[202:1] Monumental Christianity, p. 246.
[202:2] History of Our Lord in Art, vol. ii. p. 137.
[202:3] Ibid. p. 317.
[202:4] See Illustrations in Ibid. vol. i.
[202:5] See Dupuis: Origin of Religious Belief, p. 252. Higgins: Anacalypsis, vol. ii. 111, and Monumental Christianity, p. 246, et seq.
[202:6] The paschal lamb was roasted on a cross, by ancient Israel, and is still so done by the Samaritans at Nablous. (See Lundy's Monumental Christianity, pp. 19 and 247.)
"The lamb slain (at the feast of the passover) was roasted whole, with two spits thrust through it—one lengthwise, and one transversely—crossing each other near the fore legs; so that the animal was, in a manner, crucified. Not a bone of it might be broken—a circumstance strongly representing the sufferings of our Lord Jesus, the passover slain for us." (Barnes's Notes, vol. i. p. 292.)
[202:7] See King: The Gnostics and their Remains, p. 138. Also, Monumental Christianity, and Jameson's History of Our Lord in Art, for illustrations.
[203:1] See King's Gnostics, p. 178. Knight: Ancient Art and Mythology, p. xxii., and Jameson's History of Our Lord in Art, ii. 340.
[203:2] Jameson: Hist. of Our Lord in Art, p. 340, vol. ii.
[203:3] Quoted in Knight: Ancient Art and Mythology, p. xxii. note.
[203:4] Dunlap: Spirit Hist., p. 185.
[203:5] See chapter xvii. and vol. ii. Hist. Hindostan.
[203:6] See Jameson's Hist. of Our Lord in Art, vol. ii. p. 142.
[204:1] "It would be difficult to prove that the cross of Constantine was of the simple construction as now understood. . . . As regards the Labarum, the coins of the time, in which it is especially set forth, prove that the so-called cross upon it was nothing else than the same ever-recurring monogram of Christ" (that is, the XP). (History of Our Lord in Art, vol. ii. p. 310. See also, Smith's Bible Dictionary, art. "Labarum.")
[205:1] Deut. xxiv. 16.
[205:2] Num. xxv. 31-34.
[205:3] Matt. v. 17, 18.
THE DARKNESS AT THE CRUCIFIXION.
The Luke narrator informs us that at the time of the death of Christ Jesus, the sun was darkened, and there was darkness over the earth from the sixth until the ninth hour; also the veil of the temple was rent in the midst.[206:1]
The Matthew narrator, in addition to this, tells us that:
"The earth did quake, and the rocks were rent, and the graves were opened, and many bodies of the saints which slept arose, and came out of their graves . . . and went into the holy city and appeared unto many."[206:2]
"His star" having shone at the time of his birth, and his having been born in a miraculous manner, it was necessary that at the death of Christ Jesus, something miraculous should happen. Something of an unusual nature had happened at the time of the death of other supernatural beings, therefore something must happen at his death; the myth would not have been complete without it. In the words of Viscount Amberly: "The darkness from the sixth to the ninth hour, the rending of the temple veil, the earthquake, the rending of the rocks, are altogether like the prodigies attending the decease of other great men."[206:3]
The Rev. Dr. Geikie, one of the most orthodox writers, says:[206:4]
"It is impossible to explain the origin of this darkness. The passover moon was then at the full, so that it could not have been an eclipse. The early Fathers, relying on a notice of an eclipse that seemed to coincide in time, though it really did not, fancied that the darkness was caused by it, but incorrectly."
Perhaps "the origin of this darkness" may be explained from what we shall now see.
At the time of the death of the Hindoo Saviour Crishna, there [Pg 207]came calamities and bad omens of every kind. A black circle surrounded the moon, and the sun was darkened at noon-day; the sky rained fire and ashes; flames burned dusky and livid; demons committed depredations on earth; at sunrise and sunset, thousands of figures were seen skirmishing in the air; spirits were to be seen on all sides.[207:1]
When the conflict began between Buddha, the Saviour of the World, and the Prince of Evil, a thousand appalling meteors fell; clouds and darkness prevailed. Even this earth, with the oceans and mountains it contains, though it is unconscious, quaked like a conscious being—like a fond bride when forcibly torn from her bridegroom—like the festoons of a vine shaken under the blast of a whirlwind. The ocean rose under the vibration of this earthquake; rivers flowed back toward their sources; peaks of lofty mountains, where countless trees had grown for ages, rolled crumbling to the earth; a fierce storm howled all around; the roar of the concussion became terrific; the very sun enveloped itself in awful darkness, and a host of headless spirits filled the air.[207:2]
When Prometheus was crucified on Mount Caucasus, the whole frame of nature became convulsed. The earth did quake, thunder roared, lightning flashed, the wild winds rent the vexed air, the boisterous billows rose, and the dissolution of the universe seemed to be threatened.[207:3]
The ancient Greeks and Romans, says Canon Farrar,[207:4] had always considered that the births and deaths of great men were announced by celestial signs. We therefore find that at the death of Romulus, the founder of Rome, the sun was darkened, and there was darkness over the face of the earth for the space of six hours.[207:5]
When Julius Cæsar, who was the son of a god, was murdered, there was a darkness over the earth, the sun being eclipsed for the space of six hours.[207:6]
This is spoken of by Virgil, where he says:
And the impious ages feared eternal night."[207:7]
It is also referred to by Tibullus, Ovid, and Lucian (poets), Pliny, Appian, Dion Cassius, and Julius Obsequenes (historians.)[207:8]
When Æsculapius the Saviour was put to death, the sun shone dimly from the heavens; the birds were silent in the darkened groves; the trees bowed down their heads in sorrow; and the hearts of all the sons of men fainted within them, because the healer of their pains and sickness lived no more upon the earth.[208:1]
When Hercules was dying, he said to the faithful female (Iole) who followed him to the last spot on earth on which he trod, "Weep not, my toil is done, and now is the time for rest. I shall see thee again in the bright land which is never trodden by the feet of night." Then, as the dying god expired, darkness was on the face of the earth; from the high heaven came down the thick cloud, and the din of its thunder crashed through the air. In this manner, Zeus, the god of gods, carried his son home, and the halls of Olympus were opened to welcome the bright hero who rested from his mighty toil. There he now sits, clothed in a white robe, with a crown upon his head.[208:2]
When Œdipus was about to leave this world of pain and sorrow, he bade Antigone farewell, and said, "Weep not, my child, I am going to my home, and I rejoice to lay down the burden of my woe." Then there were signs in the heaven above and on the earth beneath, that the end was nigh at hand, for the earth did quake, and the thunder roared and echoed again and again through the sky.[208:3]
"The Romans had a god called Quirinius. His soul emanated from the sun, and was restored to it. He was begotten by the god of armies upon a virgin of the royal blood, and exposed by order of the jealous tyrant Amulius, and was preserved and educated among shepherds. He was torn to pieces at his death, when he ascended into heaven; upon which the sun was eclipsed or darkened."[208:4]
When Alexander the Great died, similar prodigies are said to have happened; again, when foul murders were committed, it is said that the sun seemed to hide its face. This is illustrated in the story of Atreus, King of Mycenae, who foully murdered the children of his brother Thyestes. At that time, the sun, unable to endure a sight so horrible, "turned his course backward and withdrew his light."[208:5]
Lord Kingsborough, speaking of this event, considers it very strange that the Mexicans should have preserved an account of it among their records, when "the great eclipse which sacred history records" is not recorded in profane history.
Gibbon, the historian, speaking of this phenomenon, says:
"Under the reign of Tiberius, the whole earth,[209:2] or at least a celebrated province of the Roman empire,[209:3] was involved in a perpetual darkness of three hours. Even this miraculous event, which ought to have excited the wonder, the curiosity, and the devotion of mankind, passed without notice in an age of science and history. It happened during the life-time of Seneca[209:4] and the elder Pliny,[209:5] who must have experienced the immediate effects, or received the earliest intelligence, of the prodigy. Each of these philosophers, in a laborious work, has recorded all the great phenomena of nature, earthquakes, meteors, comets and eclipses, which his indefatigable curiosity could collect.[209:6] But the one and the other have omitted to mention the greatest phenomenon to which the mortal eye has been witness since the creation of the globe."[209:7]